Core Security - Corelabs Advisory
Zavio IP Cameras multiple vulnerabilities
1. *Advisory Information*
Title: Zavio IP Cameras multiple vulnerabilities
Advisory ID: CORE-2013-0302
Date published: 2013-05-28
Date of last update: 2013-05-28
Vendors contacted: Zavio
Release mode: User release
2. *Vulnerability Information*
Class: Use of hard-coded credentials [CWE-798], OS command injection
[CWE-78], Incorrect default permissions [CWE-276], OS command injection
Impact: Code execution, Security bypass
Remotely Exploitable: Yes
Locally Exploitable: No
CVE Name: CVE-2013-2567, CVE-2013-2568, CVE-2013-2569, CVE-2013-2570
3. *Vulnerability Description*
Multiple vulnerabilities have been found in Zavio IP cameras based on
firmware v1.6.03 and below, that could allow an unauthenticated remote
1. [CVE-2013-2567] to bypass user web interface authentication using
2. [CVE-2013-2568] to execute arbitrary commands from the
administration web interface. This flaw can also be used to obtain all
credentials of registered users.
3. [CVE-2013-2569] to access the camera video stream.
4. [CVE-2013-2570] to execute arbitrary commands from the
administration web interface (post authentication only).
4. *Vulnerable Packages*
. Zavio IP cameras based on firmware v1.6.03 and below.
. All tests and PoCs were run on Zavio F3105  and F312A  IP
cameras only. Other Zavio cameras and firmware versions are probably
affected too, but they were not checked.
5. *Non-Vulnerable Packages*
. Vendor did not provide details. Contact Zavio for further information.
6. *Vendor Information, Solutions and Workarounds*
There was no official answer from Zavio after several attempts to report
these vulnerabilities (see [Sec. 9]). Contact vendor for further
Some mitigation actions may be:
. Do not expose the camera to Internet unless absolutely necessary.
. Enable RTSP authentication.
. Have at least one proxy filtering HTTP requests to
'manufacture.cgi' and 'wireless_mft.cgi'.
. Check the parameter 'General.Time.NTP.Server' in requests to
These vulnerabilities were discovered and researched by Nahuel Riva and
Francisco Falcon from Core Exploit Writers Team. The publication of this
advisory was coordinated by Fernando Miranda from Core Advisories Team.
8. *Technical Description / Proof of Concept Code*
8.1. *Hard-Coded Credentials in Administrative Web Interface*
[CVE-2013-2567] Zavio IP cameras use the Boa web server , a popular
tiny server for embedded Linux devices. 'boa.conf' is the Boa
configuration file, and the following account can be found inside:
# MFT: Specify manufacture commands user name and password
MFT manufacture erutcafunam
This account is not visible from the user web interface; users are not
aware of the existence and cannot eliminate it. Through this account it
is possible to access two CGI files located in '/cgi-bin/mft/':
The last file contains the OS command injection showed in the following
8.2. *OS Command Injection*
[CVE-2013-2568] The file '/cgi-bin/mft/wireless_mft.cgi', has an OS
command injection in the parameter 'ap' that can be exploited using the
hard-coded credentials showed in the previous section:
The following proof of concept copies the file where the user
credentials are stored in the web server root directory:
Afterwards, the user credentials can be obtained by requesting:
8.3. *RTSP Authentication Disabled by Default*
[CVE-2013-2569] The RTSP protocol authentication is disabled by default.
Therefore, the live video stream can be accessed by a remote
unauthenticated attacker by requesting:
8.4. *OS Command Injection (Post-auth)*
[CVE-2013-2570] The command injection is located in the function
'sub_C8C8' of the binary '/opt/cgi/view/param'. The vulnerable parameter
is 'General.Time.NTP.Server'. The following proof of concept can be used
to obtain the complete list of access points by executing '/sbin/awpriv
9. *Report Timeline*
Core Security Technologies notifies the Zavio Tech Support and requests
a security manager to send a draft report regarding these
vulnerabilities. No reply received.
Core asks Zavio Tech Support for a security manager to send a
Core asks for a reply.
Core asks for a reply.
Core tries to contact vendor for last time without any reply.
After 5 failed attempts to report the issues, the advisory
CORE-2013-0302 is published as 'user-release'.
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The contents of this advisory are copyright (c) 2013 Core Security
Technologies and (c) 2013 CoreLabs, and are licensed under a Creative
Commons Attribution Non-Commercial Share-Alike 3.0 (United States)
14. *PGP/GPG Keys*
This advisory has been signed with the GPG key of Core Security
Technologies advisories team, which is available for download at