Zhuhai Suny Technology ESL Tag Forgery / Replay Attacks

2022.12.09
Risk: Medium
Local: No
Remote: Yes
CWE: N/A

SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab Security Advisory < 20221201-0 > ======================================================================= title: Replay attacks & Displaying arbitrary contents product: Zhuhai Suny Technology ESL Tag / ETAG-TECH protocol (electronic shelf labels) vulnerable version: All fixed version: - CVE number: CVE-2022-45914 impact: critical homepage: http://www.zhsuny.com/ found: 2022-05-27 by: Steffen Robertz (Office Vienna) SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab An integrated part of SEC Consult, an Atos company Europe | Asia | North America https://www.sec-consult.com ======================================================================= Vendor description: ------------------- "Zhuhai Suny Technology Co., Ltd, founded in 2016 and located in Zhuhai Guangdong, is the manufacturer of electronic shelf labels and Alibaba Super Key Account Gold Supplier specializing in ESL with over 10 years’ experiences focusing on helping customers reduce cost and boost sales. Since its founding, Suny has attached great importance to exploring both international and domestic markets, thus becoming China’s top 1 manufacturer of electronic shelf labels. Its products have been widely applied in supermarkets, retail stores, pharmacies, warehouses, exhibitions, etc. We has currently provided services to customers from more than 180 countries, and total sales in 2020 have exceeded 15 million US dollars." Source: http://www.zhsuny.com/profile/ Business recommendation: ------------------------ The vendor did not respond to our communication attempts, there is no patch available. In case you are using the product, contact the vendor and urge them to fix the security vulnerabilities. SEC Consult highly recommends to perform a thorough security review of the product conducted by security professionals to identify and resolve potential further security issues. The research has also been presented at various security conferences such as hardwear.io, named "Self-labeling electronic shelf labels". Vulnerability overview/description: ----------------------------------- 1) Replay Attack The displayed information on the price tag can be updated via a 433 MHz custom protocol (called ETAG-TECH). An attacker can record transmitted RF samples and replay them later to cause the same action. Thus, it is possible to restore an older price on the tag without the need for any information about the protocol or tag. 2) Forging ETAG-TECH protocol messages to display arbitrary content (CVE-2022-45914) The ETAG-TECH protocol was reverse engineered. It was noted, that no authentication is existent. Hence, one can display arbitrary content on the electronic tag by simply transmitting messages according to the protocol. Proof of concept: ----------------- 1) Replay Attack The tag and base station communicate at 433.264 MHz. Thus, the following HackRF command can be used to record a transmission: hackrf_transfer -r /tmp/old_price -f 433264000 -s 4000000 -a 1 -x 43 -l 16 -g 20 The following command was used in order to replay the signal: hackrf_transfer -t /tmp/old_price -f 433264000 -s 4000000 -a 1 -x 43 -l 16 -g 20 A video of the attack has been published here: https://youtu.be/hj_ao25HU1E 2) Forging ETAG-TECH protocol messages to display arbitrary content (CVE-2022-45914) The base station will transmit a compressed image to the tag. Thus, any content can be displayed. Following steps will have to happen: I) Send wake-up frames to the tag. II) Compress the picture that should be displayed. III) Wrap the compressed picture into the picture data structure. IV) Split the data structure into the image frames. V) Listen for the tag's response. I) The Wake-up Frame: The CRC is calculated over the whole frame, starting with the frame length field. The frame counter is counting down to zero. Every unique frame (=unique frame counter) is sent five times. The frame is transmitted at 175 kBaud. | Preamble | Sync Header | Frame Length | Tag ID | Fixed Value | Frame Counter | Fixed Value | CRC16 | |------------------|-------------|--------------|--------|-------------|---------------|-------------|-------| | AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA | D391D391 | 08 | 065302 | 0000 | 0398 | 0A | CRC | II) The Compression Algorithm: Runlength encoding is used as compression algorithm. The image is read in rows. An "a" stands for either a 1 or 0, depending on if it's a run of ones or zeros that is being encoded. A "c" stands for the length of the run. There are four different cases: Case 1: Less than 8 consecutive bits 0b1aaaaaaa Case 2: Less than 32 consecutive bits 0b0acccccc Case 3: Less than 256 consecutive bits 0b1a000000 0bcccccccc Case 4: Less than 2^16 consecutive bits 0b0a000000 0bcccccccc 0bcccccccc III) The picture data structure The compression header indicates the color channel: FC00000000 = black FC80000000 = red | LED | Batch Code | Fixed Value | LED Time | Compression header | Display Height | Display Width | Compressed Image Data | |---------|------------|-------------|----------|--------------------|----------------|---------------|-------------------------| | 0700 | BF75 | 00ED | 000A | FC00000000 | 007F | 0127 | <Compressed Image Data> | IV) The Image Frames Image frames can only hold 54 Bytes of data. Thus the previously generated image data structure is split into chunks of 54 bytes or less. The CRC is calculated over the whole frame, starting with the frame length field. The frame counter indicates frame 1 out of 9. The frame is transmitted at 100 kBaud. | Preamble | Sync Header | Frame Length | Tag ID | Frame Counter | Fixed Value | Payload | CRC16 | |------------------|-------------|--------------|--------|---------------|-------------|------------------------|-------| | AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA | D391D391 | 08 | 065302 | 0901 | 33 | <Image Data Structure> | CRC | V) The Tag's Response The frame is transmitted at 100 kBaud and repeated three times. | Preamble | Sync Header | Frame Length | Tag ID | Battery Voltage | RSSI | Temperature | CRC16 | |------------------|-------------|--------------|--------|-----------------|-------------|-------------|-------| | AAAAAAAAAAAAAAAA | D391D391 | 07 | 065302 | 1D = 2.9V | 2068 | E9 = 23.3C | CRC | Following these steps, custom images can be sent over the ETAG-TECH protocol. The only required information is the tag ID which is printed on the tag. Otherwise it can be sniffed by listening to the RF interface and waiting for base station communication. Thus, the tag can be fully controlled by an attacker. Videos of the attack have been published here: * Displaying arbitrary tag contents: https://youtu.be/028Gn4VC8yE * Receiving arbitrary ESL-TECH messages: https://youtu.be/x7t0QViu2gU Vulnerable / tested versions: ----------------------------- No version information could be identified for this product. Vendor contact timeline: ------------------------ 2022-08-14: Contacting vendor through info@zhsuny.com.cn and zhsuny@yeah.net No response. 2022-08-27: Contacting vendor through st@zhsuny.com.cn, no response. 2022-09-12: Contacting vendor again, communicating public release for October No response. 2022-12-01: Public release of security advisory. Solution: --------- The vendor did not respond to our communication attempts, there is no patch available. In case you are using the product, contact the vendor and urge them to fix the security vulnerabilities. Workaround: ----------- None Advisory URL: ------------- https://sec-consult.com/vulnerability-lab/ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab SEC Consult, an Atos company Europe | Asia | North America About SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab The SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab is an integrated part of SEC Consult, an Atos company. It ensures the continued knowledge gain of SEC Consult in the field of network and application security to stay ahead of the attacker. The SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab supports high-quality penetration testing and the evaluation of new offensive and defensive technologies for our customers. Hence our customers obtain the most current information about vulnerabilities and valid recommendation about the risk profile of new technologies. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Interested to work with the experts of SEC Consult? Send us your application https://sec-consult.com/career/ Interested in improving your cyber security with the experts of SEC Consult? Contact our local offices https://sec-consult.com/contact/ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Mail: security-research at sec-consult dot com Web: https://www.sec-consult.com Blog: http://blog.sec-consult.com Twitter: https://twitter.com/sec_consult EOF S. Robertz / @2022


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