OpenText Extended ECM 22.3 Java Frontend Remote Code Execution

2023.01.22
Credit: Armin Stock
Risk: High
Local: No
Remote: Yes
CWE: N/A

SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab Security Advisory < 20230117-1 > ======================================================================= title: Pre-authenticated Remote Code Execution via Java frontend and QDS endpoint product: OpenText™ Content Server component of OpenText™ Extended ECM vulnerable version: 20.4 - 22.3 fixed version: 22.4 CVE number: CVE-2022-45927 impact: Critical homepage: https://www.opentext.com found: 2022-09-16 by: Armin Stock (Atos) SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab An integrated part of SEC Consult, an Atos company Europe | Asia | North America https://www.sec-consult.com ======================================================================= Vendor description: ------------------- "OpenText™ Extended ECM is an enterprise CMS platform that securely governs the information lifecycle by integrating with leading enterprise applications, such as SAP®, Microsoft® 365, Salesforce and SAP SuccessFactors®. Bringing content and processes together, Extended ECM provides access to information when and where it’s needed, improves decision-making and drives operational effectiveness." Source: https://www.opentext.com/products/extended-ecm Business recommendation: ------------------------ The vendor provides a patch which should be installed immediately. Vulnerability overview/description: ----------------------------------- 1) Pre-authenticated Remote Code Execution via Java frontend and QDS endpoint (CVE-2022-45927) The `QDS` endpoints of the `Content Server` are not protected by the normal user management functionality of the `Content Server`, but check the value of the key `_REQUEST` of the incoming data. Normally this parameter is set by the HTTP frontend (e.g. the `CGI` binary `cs.exe` or `Java` application servlet) to `llweb`. There is a bug in the `Java` application server, found in `%OT_BASE%/application/cs.war`, which allows an attacker to actually set the value of the key `_REQUEST` to an arbitrary value and bypass the authorization checks. Most of the endpoints cannot be called, because they require specific data types of the incoming data, which can not be controlled by the attacker. Only strings are supported. But a few endpoints can be called which allow an attacker to create files or execute arbitrary code on the server. Proof of concept: ----------------- 1) Pre-authenticated Remote Code Execution via Java frontend and QDS endpoint (CVE-2022-45927) To be able to set the value of the `_REQUEST` parameter the attacker has to send the data via a `POST` request with a `Content-Type` of `multipart/form-data`. This results in the following execution flow: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- [ Details removed, will be published at a later date ] ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The following request (using the `CGI` frontend) results in an unauthorized response: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- [ PoC removed, will be published at a later date ] ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- <!-- Response --> <div class="cs-form-container cs-form-message-container"> <div> <div class="cs-form-line-text cs-form-message cs-form-message-error" title="Error" id="errMsg" > <p> Content Server Error: </p> <p> The request did not come from XXX. </p> </div> </div> </div> ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Whereas using the `Java` application server results in the following response: ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- HTTP/1.1 200 A<1,?,'ErrMsg'=?,'ErrMsgDetail'=?,'OK'=true,'QDSServerList'={}>Content-Type: text/html;charset=UTF-8 Cache-Control: no-cache X-Frame-Options: SAMEORIGIN Content-Security-Policy: frame-ancestors 'self' X-UA-Compatible: IE=edge Content-Length: 0 Date: Tue, 27 Sep 2022 13:04:47 GMT Connection: close ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- Create new objects: Using this bug it is possible to create objects in the `Content Server` without known credentials and in the context of the super-admin user ( ID `1000` ), by calling the endpoint `[ Details removed, will be published at a later date ]`. ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- [ PoC removed, will be published at a later date ] ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- The new object (subType = `145` text file) is created without providing cookies and the `owner` attribute of this object is set to `1000` (super admin): ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- HTTP/1.1 200 A<1,?,'CATEGORY'=?,'CloneTime'=D/2022/9/28: 8:10:5,'COMMENT'='created','ContentType'=?,'CREATEDATE'=D/2022/9/28:8:10:5,'CREATEDBY'=1000,'DataID'=51982,'DATELASTMODIFY'=D/2022/9/28:8:10:5,'EXATT1'=?,'EXATT2'=?,'EXTENDEDDATA'=?,'GROUPPERM'=128,'location'=E648871951,'MAJOR'=?,'MAXVERSION'=-1,'MINOR'=?,'Name'='qds-create-poc.txt','nextURL'=E648871951,'Node'=A<1,?,'AssignedTo'=?,'CacheExpiration'=0,'Catalog'=0,'ChildCount'=0,'CreateDate'=D/2022/9/28:8:10:5,'CreatedBy'=1000,'DataID'=51982,'DataType'=?,'DateAssigned'=?,'DateCompleted'=?,'DateDue'=?,'DateEffective'=?,'DateExpiration'=?,'DateStarted'=?,'DCategory'=?,'DComment'='created','Deleted'=0,'ExAtt1'=?,'ExAtt2'=?,'ExtendedData'=?,'ExternalCreateDate'=?,'ExternalCreatorID'=?,'ExternalModifyDate'=?,'ExternalSourceID'=?,'GIF'=?,'GPermissions'=128,'GroupID'=999,'GUID'='@[537A1229-E0F5-45EE-A3F2-D7F91EE6CBBC]','Major'=?,'MaxVers'=-1,'Minor'=?,'ModifiedBy'=1000,'ModifyDate'=D/2022/9/28:8:10:5,'Multilingual'=V{<'LanguageCode','Name','DComment'><'de','qds-create-poc.txt','created'>},'Name'='qds-create-poc.txt','Ordering'=?,'OriginDataID'=0,'OriginOwnerID'=0,'OwnerID'=-2004,'ParentID'=2004,'PermID'=?,'Priority'=?,'ReleaseRef'=?,'Reserved'=0,'ReservedBy'=0,'ReservedDate'=?,'SPermissions'=16777215,'Status'=?,'SubType'=144,'UPermissions'=16777215,'UserID'=1000,'VersionNum'=1,'WPermissions'=128>,'OK'=true,'ORDERING'=?,'ORIGINALID'=0,'ORIGINALVOLID'=0,'PARENTID'=2004,'PERMISSIONS'=-2130706433,'PermsOK'=true,'Public'=false,'RELEASEREF'=?,'RESERVED'=0,'RESERVEDBY'=0,'RESERVEDDATE'=?,'SUBTYPE'=144,'SYSTEMPERM'=16777215,'USERID'=1000,'USERPERM'=16777215,'VERSION'=A<1,?,'DataSize'=6,'DocID'=51982,'ExternalCreateDate'=?,'ExternalCreatorID'=?,'ExternalModifyDate'=?,'ExternalSourceID'=?,'FileCDate'=D/2022/9/28:8:10:5,'FileCreator'=?,'FileMDate'=D/2022/9/28:8:10:5,'FileName'='qds-create-poc.txt','FileType'='html','GUID'='@[DF09D9F7-6A86-40CB-AECD-57FD5FB7D38B]','Indexed'=0,'Locked'=0,'LockedBy'=?,'LockedDate'=?,'MimeType'='text/html','Owner'=1000,'PageNum'=?,'Platform'=0,'ProviderId'=51982,'ProviderName'='SQL','ResSize'=0,'VerCDate'=D/2022/9/28:8:10:5,'VerComment'=?,'VerMajor'=0,'VerMDate'=D/2022/9/28:8:10:5,'VerMinor'=1,'Version'=1,'VersionID'=51982,'VersionName'='1','VerType'=?>,'versionInfo'=A<1,?,'COMMENT'=?,'CREATEDATE'=D/2022/9/28:8:10:5,'FILECREATEDATE'=D/2022/9/28:8:10:5,'FILECREATOR'=?,'FILEDATASIZE'=6,'FILEMODIFYDATE'=D/2022/9/28:8:10:5,'FILENAME'='qds-create-poc.txt','FILEPLATFORM'=0,'FILERESSIZE'=0,'FILETYPE'='html','ID'=51982,'INDEXED'=0,'LOCKED'=0,'LOCKEDBY'=?,'LOCKEDDATE'=?,'MIMETYPE'='text/html','MODIFYDATE'=D/2022/9/28:8:10:5,'NAME'='1','NODEID'=51982,'NUMBER'=1,'OWNER'=1000,'PROVIDERID'=51982,'PROVIDERNAME'='SQL','TYPE'=?>,'VOLUMEID'=-2004,'WORLDPERM'=128>Content-Type: text/html;charset=UTF-8 Cache-Control: no-cache X-Frame-Options: SAMEORIGIN Content-Security-Policy: frame-ancestors 'self' X-UA-Compatible: IE=edge Content-Length: 0 Date: Wed, 28 Sep 2022 08:10:05 GMT Connection: close ------------------------------------------------------------------------------- There is a process object (`typeId` = 271), which can be created and executed afterwards allowing attackers to execute arbitrary code. Vulnerable / tested versions: ----------------------------- The following version has been tested: * 22.1 (16.2.19.1803) The following versions are vulnerable according to the vendor: * 20.4 - 22.3 Vendor contact timeline: ------------------------ 2022-10-07: Vendor contacted via security@opentext.com 2022-10-07: Vendor acknowledged the email and is reviewing the reports 2022-11-18: Vendor confirms all vulnerabilities and is working on a patch aimed to be released in November 2022-11-24: Vendor delays the patch "few days/weeks into December" 2022-11-25: Requesting CVE numbers (Mitre) 2022-12-15: Vendor delays the patch and provides a release date: January 16th 2023 2023-01-17: Public release of security advisory Solution: --------- Upgrade to at least version 22.4 or apply hotfixes which can be downloaded at the vendor's page: https://support.opentext.com/csm?id=kb_article_view&sysparm_article=KB0781429 Workaround: ----------- None Advisory URL: ------------- https://sec-consult.com/vulnerability-lab/ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab SEC Consult, an Atos company Europe | Asia | North America About SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab The SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab is an integrated part of SEC Consult, an Atos company. It ensures the continued knowledge gain of SEC Consult in the field of network and application security to stay ahead of the attacker. The SEC Consult Vulnerability Lab supports high-quality penetration testing and the evaluation of new offensive and defensive technologies for our customers. Hence our customers obtain the most current information about vulnerabilities and valid recommendation about the risk profile of new technologies. ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Interested to work with the experts of SEC Consult? Send us your application https://sec-consult.com/career/ Interested in improving your cyber security with the experts of SEC Consult? Contact our local offices https://sec-consult.com/contact/ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Mail: security-research at sec-consult dot com Web: https://www.sec-consult.com Blog: http://blog.sec-consult.com Twitter: https://twitter.com/sec_consult EOF Armin Stock / @2023


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